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Table 1 The six steps of institutional development and indicators with which they can be assessed

From: Institutional barriers to organic farming in Central and Eastern European countries of the Baltic Sea region

Characteristics of the completed step Indicators used to assess the characteristic
Step 1: Establishment of an organic community
a) The organic community has a strong identity 1: Introduction of first standard (date)
2: Number of national producers’ associations
4: Private standard can still be used
b) Producers’ associations have the power to     influence other parts of society 3: Power of producers’ association
5: Proportion of organic farmers that are members of     an association (%)
Step 2: Establishment of political recognition
a) Regulatory support exists 6: Introduction of first national regulation (date)
  7: Introduction of current regulation (date)
b) Financial support is high 10: Introduction of area payment (date)
11: Area payment (euro/ha)
12: % of agri-environmental scheme devoted to      organic farming
13: Total amount devoted to OF (millions of euro)
15: Loans available for improvement of organic farms
16: Lower taxes for organic farmers
17: Certification/inspection costs reimbursement
18: Research support (million euros/year)
c) Strategic support is high 20: Action plan for organic farming
21: OF incorporation in strategic plan of government
22: Quantitative target for proportion cultivated      organically (%)
Step 3: Establishment of financial support
a) Financial support has been introduced 10: Introduction of area payment (date)
b) Area payments are high enough to off-set the    cost incurred by conversion and lower productivity 11: Area payment (euro/ha)
13: Total amount devoted to organic farming      (millions of euro/year)
14: % uptake of area support
c) Research program is well-funded and complete 18: Research support (million euro/year)
19: Estimate % of agricultural research funding to      organic farming
25: Range of research program
d) There are financial schemes to help organic      farmers 15: Loans available for improvement of organic farms
16: Lower taxes for organic farmers
17: Certification/inspection costs reimbursement
18: Research support (million euro/year)
Step 4: Development of non-competitive relationships
a) Partnership 8: Partnerships strength
b) Integration of organic farming in state institutions 23: Specific office in agricultural ministry
24: Degree of integration of OF in training establishments
26: Degree of integration of OF in advisory services
c) Discussion arena existence 9: Discussion arena existence
d) Strength of the organic community identity 1: Introduction of first standard (date)
2: Number of national producers’ associations
4: Private standard can still be used
e) The power a producers’ associations has 3: Power of producers’ association
5: Proportion of organic farmers that are members of an     association (%)
Step 5: Establishment of organic food market
a) A complete supply chain exist 27: Number of certified processing facilities (2004)
28: Promotion by large retailers
29: Distribution of sales channels
b) Other structural conditions are favourable 34: Perception of the quality of certification and control       system
c) The behaviour of the general consumers     is favourable 31: Proportion of consumer that can correctly define       organic farming (%)
32: Acceptable price premium by 50% of the population
33: % of the population that buy OP > once a week/>once       a month/< once a month
d) The market share of organic farming is large 30: Market share of organic products (%)
Step 6: Development of a committed institutional setting
a) An inclusive discussion arena exists 9: Discussion arena existence
b) An inclusive coordination arena exist 20: Action plan for organic farming
  1. Note that some indicators are relevant for more than one step.