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Table 1 Unit root tests a

From: Price relations between international rice markets

Export Price Level First-difference
ADF PP ZA Structural break ADF PP
Thailand 5% -3.380* -2.884 -6.552*** 2008 m02 -7.556*** -7.264***
Vietnam 5% -3.804** -2.796 -6.017*** 2008 m02 -7.251*** -5.923***
Pakistan 25% -3.794** -2.813 -5.692*** 2007 m09 -7.123*** -7.096***
U.S 2-4% -3.102 -2.589 -4.141 2007 m09 -6.984*** -7.025***
Argentina 10% -2.808 -2.422 -4.001 2007 m07 -7.818*** -7.707***
  1. a The time period of the price series is from January 2000 to May 2013. The prices are in their logarithmic transformations. A trend and intercept were included in the unit root tests. *, **, ***, signify a ten, five, and one percent level of significance of the unit root tests.