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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Factors affecting efficiency of cotton producers in rural Khorezm, Uzbekistan: Re-examining the role of knowledge indicators in technical efficiency improvement

  Units Khorezm (n = 298 observations)
Mean SD Min Min
Output variable
Yield tons ha−1 2.72 0.43 1.9 3.6
Production variables
Diesel kg ha−1 204.65 50.47 100 300
Labour Person-days ha−1 66.95 28.89 30 153
Nitrogen kg ha−1 197.2 38.92 100 277
Seeds kg ha−1 64.55 5.85 55 87
Land kg ha−1 15.22 12.84 1 81.5
Farm characteristics
Farm size (Fsize) ha 19.48 13.69 4.4 92.1
Bonitet score (Bscore) Index (1–100) 55.71 11.10 30 85
Obsolete Drainage (Drain) Dummy 0.51 0.50 0 1
Crop diversification indexa (Div) Index (0≤ ) 0.28 0.33 0 1.54
Socio-demographic and institutional characteristics
Participation in off-farm work (Offwork) Dummy 0.44 0.50 0 1
Dependency ratiob (Dratio) Ratio 1.00 1.12 0.1 8
Access to Credit (Acredit) Dummy 0.42 0.49 0 1
Satisfaction with WUA services (Wua) Dummy 0.39 0.49 0 1
Knowledge indicators
Agricultural experience (agexp) Years 14.54 7.81 3 38
Graduated from university (educ1) Dummy 0.30 0.46 0 1
Graduated from college (educ2) Dummy 0.46 0.50 0 1
Finished only high school (educ3) Dummy 0.24 0.43 0 1
Educational background (Edb) Dummy 0.49 0.50 0 1
Seminar participation (Seminar) Frequency 4.55 1.30 2 9
Agronomic practices
Water availability (Wavail) Dummy 0.45 0.50 0 1
Weeding frequency (Weedfreq) Frequency 5.73 1.55 2 10
Manure application (Manur) Dummy 0.47 0.50 0 1
  1. Note 1: aThe study used the Shannon diversity index to capture farmer’s crop diversification:
  2. Shannon diversity index = i = 1 J P i ln P i 11 .
  3. J stands for the number of crops. The term P i is the proportion of the area used for a particular crop. ln is the natural logarithm. It is zero if farmer grows only one crop.
  4. Note 2: bRatio of family dependents aged below 15 and above 60 compared to the number of family adults who are of working age.