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Table 4 Results of F/t-tests of differences in mean income across investment and labour use patterns

From: Off-farm labour supply and production efficiency of farm household in rural Southwest Nigeria

Description N % Mean Std. error
Farm income by farm enterprise mix     
Arable crops only 82 16.8 142,215.80a,b 17,590.50
Arable & tree crops 122 25.0 230,586.35c 15,658.46
Arable crops & livestock 75 15.4 138,596.11a,b 15,680.56
Arable crops, tree crops & livestock 200 40.9 175,099.07b,c 11,727.26
Tree crops and/or livestock 9 1.9 61,556.07a 22,466.14
F-value = 6.587; p < 0.01     
Off-farm labour Income by activity mix     
Artisanship 61 26.5 153,977.53a,b 15,767.33
Trading 70 30.6 121,573.38a,b 13,528.98
Paid Job 26 11.3 196,092.74b 52,361.29
Other services 28 12.2 91,293.44a 16,134.62
Artisanship, trading and/or other service 21 9.2 193,644.16b 30,030.38
Paid job + trading/artisanship 23 10.2 357,269.22c 57,770.53
F-value = 9.228; p < 0.01     
Total labour income by labour use mix     
Farming only 259 52.9 192,371.76a 12,097.18
Farm and off-farm activities 230 47.1 383,162.75b 16,937.51
t-value = 9.166; p < 0.01     
Gross income by income source mix     
Labour only 52 10.6 266,766.86a 30,367.86
Labour & remittances 104 21.2 339,215.71a,b 26,224.03
Labour & asset 120 24.5 356,064.14b 27,998.20
Labour, asset & remittances 214 43.7 387,364.01b 21,238.92
F-value = 2.538; p < 0.10     
  1. NOTE: Mean incomes within each socio-economic group that carry the same superscript, a b or c are not significantly different, while those having different superscripts are significantly different at p < 0.05.