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Table 1 Indicators used to measure HNV farmland

From: Understanding linkages between common agricultural policy and High Nature Value (HNV) farmland provision: an empirical analysis in Tuscany Region

Component Indicator Unit of measure Sources
Type 1 Farmland area with native and old species and varieties; Forest Edges (% of UAA) Pointereau, et al., ([2010]);
Land cover approach
Pointereau, et al., ([2010]);
Type 2 Input per hectare (nitrogen, water, input costs) (kgsq m/€ per ha) Paracchini and Britz, ([2010]); Pointereau, et al., ([2010]); Signorotti et al. ([2013]); Pointereau, et al., ([2010]); Schwaiger ([2012])
Farmland mosaic Plot dimension and ratio with natural and semi-natural elements (hedgerow)
Livestock density -
Paracchini and Britz, [2010]; Signorotti et al. ([2013]); Paracchini and Britz, ([2010])
(livestock units per hectare of meadows and pastures)
Pointereau, et al., ([2010]);
Presence of extensive grassland, fallow and pasture
Type 3 Shannon index or further index elaborations Index Paracchini and Britz, ([2010]); Pointereau, et al., ([2010]); Paracchini et al., [2008]
(ha of area allocated to. olive or to wet grassland)
Presence of specific crops Pointereau, et al., ([2010]); Patterson ([2012])
Species data (# of lower plants, vascular plants, butterflies, mammals and birds)