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Table 2 Adoption rates of technologies, management practices, and production systems (TMPPS) on U.S. dairy farms

From: The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

Technology, Management Practice, or Production System % of Farms Adopting 2005 % of Farms Adopting 2010 % of Milk Produced Covered by TMPPS 2005 % of Milk Produced Covered by TMPPS 2010
Computerized and/or Automated Technologies     
Computerized Feed Delivery System 7.1 8.7 28.2c 37.7d
Computerized Milking System 5.3a 7.1b 22.8 24.2
On-farm Computer for Records 25.9 30.1 66.1c 73.1d
Internet for Dairy Information 38.2a 47.6b 63.6c 79.9d
Automatic Take-offs for Milking Units 37.5 39.7 72.9 77.0
Holding Pen with an Udder Washer 6.5 6.7 31.4 30.7
Breeding and/or Biological Technologies     
Artificial Insemination 81.5 80.1 88.9c 92.2d
Embryo Transfer and/or Sexed Semen 10.4a 17.8b 15.7c 24.3d
Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin 16.6a 8.5b 40.0c 16.6d
Management Practices     
Regularly Scheduled Veterinary Services 68.4 65.8 87.5 90.1
Nutritionist to Design Feed Mixes 71.6 72.6 87.8 90.0
Individual Cow Production Records 60.6 63.6 81.6 84.9
Forward Purchasing of Inputs 19.4 21.9 44.2c 53.1d
Negotiated Price Discounts for Inputs 34.5 36.2 60.0c 71.2d
Production Systems     
Milk Cows ≥3 Times per Day 7.0 9.4 30.4c 41.8d
Dairy Parlor 49.9 53.0 83.9c 89.3d
Pasture-based Milk Production 18.3 20.0 6.8 6.6
USDA Certified Organic Milk Production 1.6 8.6 0.7c 3.3d
Controlled Breeding and/or Calving Season 25.3 24.8 24.2 20.9
  1. Superscripts a and b indicate that the estimates differ significantly at P< 0.10. Likewise, superscripts c and d indicate that the estimates differ significantly at P < 0.10.