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Table 5 Logit results for dairy farmer adoption of management practices, 2010 (Standard errors in parenthesis)

From: The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

Variable Units Regular Veterinary Services Nutritionist to Design Feed Mixes/Purchase Keep Individual Cow Production Records Forward Purchasing of Inputs Negotiate Price Discounts for Inputs
   β Marg Effect β Marg Effect β Marg Effect β Marg Effect β Marg Effect
Constant   0.9779* (0.5619)   2.2682*** (0.5681)   −0.0730 (0.5371)   −0.9932 (0.6556)   −0.2132 (0.5356)  
Farm Structure            
Cows No./100 0.3171** (0.1491) 0.0638** (0.0270) 0.1747* (0.0907) 0.0319** (0.0160) 0.1170 (0.0874) 0.0263 (0.0190) 0.0969** (0.0392) 0.0152** (0.0060) 0.2356*** (0.0616) 0.0555*** (0.0150)
Acres No./100 0.0807*** (0.0290) 0.0162*** (0.0060) 0.0245 (0.0230) 0.0045 (0.0040) 0.0492** (0.0241) 0.0111** (0.0060) 0.0670*** (0.0218) 0.0110*** (0.0030) 0.0769*** (0.0235) 0.0181*** (0.0050)
Owned Portion 0.1526 (0.0932) 0.0307 (0.0187) 0.0129 (0.1027) 0.0024 (0.0188) 0.1515* (0.0906) 0.0341* (0.0204) 0.1977* (0.1057) 0.0310* (0.0167) 0.1737* (0.0896) 0.0409* (0.0212)
Specialized Portion 0.3708 (0.4797) 0.0745 (0.0971) 0.2184 (0.5011) 0.0399 (0.0915) 1.0345** (0.4783) 0.2329** (0.1084) 0.1089 (0.5634) 0.0171 (0.0883) 0.1536 (0.4778) 0.0362 (0.1125)
Organic 0-1 −0.7560*** (0.1825) −0.1696*** (0.0437) −0.8361*** (0.1802) −0.1771*** (0.0403) 0.3477* (0.1894) 0.0744* (0.0390) −0.6341*** (0.2225) −0.0841*** (0.0265) −0.6024*** (0.1830) −0.1312*** (0.0376)
Pasture-based 0-1 −1.4377*** (0.2251) −0.3250*** (0.0546) −1.2251*** (0.2219) −0.2590*** (0.0518) −1.0914*** (0.2155) −0.2599*** (0.0521) −1.2014*** (0.2702) −0.1504*** (0.0262) −0.2873 (0.2310) −0.0661 (0.0516)
Farmer Demographics            
Age Yrs./10 −0.1978*** (0.0767) −0.0398*** (0.0154) −0.2680*** (0.0732) −0.0489*** (0.0132) −0.0994 (0.0690) −0.0224 (0.0155) −0.1863** (0.0793) −0.0292** (0.0126) −0.2208*** (0.0697) −0.0520*** (0.0165)
College 0-1 0.1120 (0.2441) 0.0021 (0.0474) 0.1344 (0.2611) 0.0239 (0.0452) 0.6260** (0.3020) 0.1285** (0.0553) 0.9036*** (0.2394) 0.1709*** (0.0518) 0.5234** (0.2171) 0.1275** (0.0573)
Regions            
West 0-1 0.1626 (0.3951) 0.0315 (0.0746) −0.1990 (0.3567) −0.0381 (0.0707) −0.4782 (0.3339) −0.1139 (0.0824) 0.4811 (0.3260) 0.0861 (0.0781) −0.0821 (0.3375) −0.0192 (0.0781)
Pacific 0-1 0.1620 (0.3884) 0.0315 (0.0738) −0.5675* (0.3451) −0.1163 (0.0760) 0.3482 (0.3762) 0.0742 (0.0763) 0.2478 (0.3260) 0.0415 (0.0576) −0.0817 (0.3208) −0.0191 (0.0743)
Southeast 0-1 −1.3025*** (0.3561) −0.3077*** (0.0841) −0.5115 (0.3379) −0.1048 (0.0746) 0.2343 (0.3454) 0.0507 (0.0721) −0.9940** (0.3960) −0.1135*** (0.0327) −0.3641 (0.3387) −0.0815 (0.0718)
Corn Belt 0-1 −0.1350 (0.2153) −0.0277 (0.0447) −0.2997 (0.2263) −0.0574 (0.0447) −0.1171 (0.2005) −0.0267 (0.0460) 0.0895 (0.2222) 0.0143 (0.0359) −0.2650 (0.2030) −0.0610 (0.0459)
North Plains 0-1 −1.0329** (0.4103) −0.2411** (0.1026) −0.3279 (0.3884) −0.0647 (0.0815) 0.0725 (0.3611) 0.0161 (0.0795) 0.7164* (0.3945) 0.1358 (0.0860) −0.4551 (0.3930) −0.1003 (0.0801)
Appalachia 0-1 −0.0493 (0.2451) −0.0100 (0.0501) −0.6199** (0.2457) −0.1285** (0.0546) −0.0926 (0.2250) −0.0211 (0.0518) 0.1971 (0.2412) 0.0326 (0.0415) 0.1571 (0.2177) 0.0376 (0.0526)
Northeast 0-1 0.2990 (0.2595) 0.0583 (0.0488) 0.3519 (0.2634) 0.0616 (0.0441) −0.0007 (0.2407) −0.0002 (0.0542) −0.1123 (0.2859) −0.0173 (0.0433) −0.1129 (0.2379) −0.0264 (0.0553)
South Plains 0-1 −1.8523*** (0.4339) −0.4322*** (0.0898) −1.1208*** (0.3858) −0.2503*** (0.0939) −0.8597** (0.3474) −0.2087** (0.0848) −0.2819 (0.4069) −0.0406 (0.0539) −0.4848 (0.3829) −0.1064 (0.0775)
Diagnostics            
Pseudo R2   0.1510   0.1141   0.0750   0.1214   0.1038  
  1. Note: *, **, and *** indicate significance at the P ≤0.10, P ≤0.05, and P ≤0.01 levels, respectively.