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Table 6 Logit results for dairy farmer adoption of production systems, 2010 (Standard errors in parenthesis)

From: The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

Variable Units Milk Cows ≥3 Times/Day Use of a Dairy Parlor Control Breeding and/or Calving Season
   β Marg Effect β Marg Effect β Marg Effect
Constant   −6.8569*** (1.3940)   −2.9046*** (0.7228)   1.2252** (0.5979)  
Farm Structure        
Cows No./100 0.1168*** (0.0427) 0.0053** (0.0020) 3.2069*** (0.4211) 0.6800*** (0.0610) −0.0097 (0.0135) −0.0017 (0.0020)
Acres No./100 0.0853*** (0.0261) 0.0039*** (0.0010) 0.0358 (0.0516) 0.0076 (0.0110) −0.0229 (0.0166) −0.0041 (0.0030)
Owned Portion 0.3359*** (0.1154) 0.0152*** (0.0051) −0.1253 (0.0974) −0.0266 (0.0207) −0.3062* (0.1670) −0.0545* (0.0296)
Specialized Portion 4.5926*** (1.3418) 0.2084*** (0.0617) −0.7025 (0.6383) −0.1490 (0.1336) −0.2972 (0.4909) −0.0529 (0.0873)
Organic 0-1 −2.6073*** (0.9107) −0.0542*** (0.0114) 0.1841 (0.2108) 0.0378 (0.0421) 0.5651*** (0.1937) 0.1126*** (0.0400)
Pasture-based 0-1 −1.2610 (0.7799) −0.0425** (0.0170) 0.5428** (0.2322) 0.1072*** (0.0418) 0.7396*** (0.2317) 0.1463*** (0.0502)
Farmer Demographics        
Age Yrs./10 0.0159 (0.1527) 0.0007 (0.0069) 0.0482 (0.0987) 0.0102 (0.0210) 0.0424 (0.0694) 0.0075 (0.0123)
College 0-1 1.1874*** (0.2842) 0.0838*** (0.0277) 0.0248 (0.3723) 0.0052 (0.0783) 0.2968 (0.2374) 0.0560 (0.0472)
Regions        
West 0-1 0.0407 (0.4535) 0.0019 (0.0213)    0.5220* (0.3079) 0.1048 (0.0668)
Pacific 0-1 −1.1548** (0.5672) −0.0341*** (0.0119)    0.3633 (0.2941) 0.0701 (0.0601)
Southeast 0-1 −2.3947*** (0.5348) −0.0442*** (0.0087)    1.6935*** (0.3116) 0.3884*** (0.0713)
Corn Belt 0-1 −0.8453** (0.3685) −0.0306** (0.0126) 2.0361*** (0.2759) 0.3186*** (0.0367) 0.4468** (0.2277) 0.0855* (0.0450)
North Plains 0-1 −0.0042 (0.5353) −0.0002 (0.0242)    1.3877*** (0.3852) 0.3141*** (0.0936)
Appalachia 0-1 −0.9534** (0.3915) −0.0299*** (0.0101) 3.2609*** (0.3809) 0.3231*** (0.0361) 0.9836*** (0.2441) 0.2114*** (0.0561)
Northeast 0-1 −0.5939 (0.3898) −0.0242 (0.0148) −0.1933 (0.2540) −0.0415 (0.0555) −0.1774 (0.2772) −0.0309 (0.0472)
South Plains 0-1 −1.5348** (0.7694) −0.0382*** (0.0115)    0.9363*** (0.3637) 0.2015** (0.0870)
Diagnostics        
Pseudo R2   0.2374   0.3665   0.0569  
  1. Note: *, **, and *** indicate significance at the P ≤0.10, P ≤0.05, and P ≤0.01 levels, respectively.