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Table 1 Evolutionary path of the European and Italian regulations referring to the DAs and related definitions

From: Agricultural districts in the Italian regions: looking toward 2020

EU political references Italian National laws Legal notions Definitions
C.I LEADER (1988–2006) 1991-2001 First law on industrial districts Industrial Districts Law 317/91 art.36 para.1 Local territorial areas with high concentration of small enterprises, with particular reference to relationship between presence of enterprises and resident population, as well as to production specialisation of enterprises as a whole.
  Regulation of negotiated planning Negotiated planning L. 104/1995 Regulations agreed between public entities, or with competent public entity, and party or parties, public or private, for implementation of different interventions related to a unique development purpose that requires comprehensive assessment of activities pertaining to it.
EU Rural development policy   1998 Del. CIPE Applicability of negotiated planning to rural, agricultural and fisheries districts
  Second law on industrial districts Local productive systems (LPS) Law 140/99 art.6 para.8 Homogeneous productive contexts with high concentration of industrial enterprises and specialisation of business systems
  The Orientation Law Rural districts Legislative decree 228/2001 art.13 para.1 Local production systems referred to in Article 36, paragraph 1, of Law of 5 October 1991 n. 317 [see first row above] and subsequent amendments with homogeneous identity from a historical and territorial point of view arising from integration between agricultural activities and other local activities, as well as production of goods or services of particular specificity, consistent with traditions and natural and territorial vocations.
  Quality agro-food districts Legislative decree 228/2001 art.13 para.2 Local production systems, including interregional, with significant economic presence and productive interrelationship, and interdependence of farms and agri-food enterprises, and one or more certified or protected products in accordance with applicable Community or national regulations, or from traditional or typical products.
LEADER AXIS (2007–2013) 2002-2008 The Finance Law 2006 Productive Districts Law 266/2005 art.1 para.366 Free combinations of enterprises articulated territorially and functionally, aiming at enhancing development of areas and sectors, improving effective organisation and production, according to principles of vertical and horizontal subsidiarity, also identifying ways of working with entrepreneurial associations.
Freely accessible by industrial companies, services, tourism and agriculture and fisheries.
2008-2013 Business networks and network contracts Business network L.133/2008 art.6bis Free aggregations of single production centres cohesive in unitary development of industrial policies, also in order to improve their presence in international markets
Extension of LEADER method to ESI FUNDS 2014-2020 What role for the DAs?