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Table 1 ADF and PP unit root tests

From: Oil and food prices in Malaysia: a nonlinear ARDL analysis

  Level First difference
Variable ADF PP ADF PP
fp −4.6516*** −3.5109 −4.5033*** −4.5938***
y −1.5225 −1.6961 −5.5803*** −5.5819***
op rm −2.1053 −2.1156 −6.4388*** −6.4406***
op usd −2.2269 −2.2275 −6.2351*** −6.2351***
  1. Notes: the constant and trend terms are included in the test equations and the SIC is used to select the optimal lag order in the ADF test equation.
  2. ***denote significance at 1% level.