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Table 4 Mean difference in some welfare indicators between adopters and non-adopters of improved rice varieties

From: Agricultural technology adoption, commercialization and smallholder rice farmers’ welfare in rural Nigeria

Variable All Adopters (N = 348) Non-adopters (N = 215) Difference t-value
Consumption expend. per capita 21897.78 (954.84) 23201.19 (1117.76) 19788.07 (1719.63) 3413.12 (1961.78) 1.74*
Rice income per hectare 223555.90 (6109.67) 231268.30 (8063.61) 211072.70 (9212.44) 20195.59 (12557.55) 1.61
Rice income per capita 28503.33 (1054.86) 32500.24 (1860.09) 26033.81 (1245.49) 6466.44 (2155.88) 2.99***
Total farm income per capita 43188.73 (1607.10) 42775.88 (1796.17) 43856.98 (3048.06) 1081.11 (3310.46) 0.33
Average yield (kg/ha) 3271.07 (94.35) 3408.13 (122.6) 3049.22 (146.57) 358.90 (193.78) 1.85*
Total farm size (ha) 2.59 (0.09) 2.63 (0.12) 2.55 (0.16) 0.08 (0.19) 0.39
Access to credit (%) 23.45 (0.02) 12.07 (0.02) 41.86 (0.03) 29.79 (0.03) 8.61***
Market participation (%) 70.69 (0.02) 60.63 (0.03) 86.97 (0.02) 26.34 (0.04) 6.94***
Cost of seed (N) 124.97 (1.56) 124.71 (1.49) 125.39 (1.82) 0.684 (2.38) 0.287
Distance to source of seed (KM) 4.39 (0.27) 5.36 (0.39) 2.80 (0.29) 2.56 (0.55) 4.61
  1. Source: Field survey, 2010. ***, **, and * implies significant at 1 %, 5 %, and 10 % respectively
  2. Note: Figures in Parentheses are the standard error