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Table 7 Result of the Heckman two-step model

From: Agricultural technology adoption, commercialization and smallholder rice farmers’ welfare in rural Nigeria

  Pooled data (1) Upland system (2) Lowland system (3)
Variable Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient
Effect of Market Participation on Welfare: Outcome Equation-OLS
YIELD 1.182** (0.571) −1.2503 (0.8632) 0.8636 (0.6168)
EXCONT 1577.404 (2522.187) 9733.857 (6310.524) −2477.328 (4412.423)
GNR 17033.220*** (3305.896) 23811.81*** (5882.429) 16028.38*** (3289.288)
VOCT 6154.037** (3006.475) 6707.037(5754.729) 1002.409 (3375.999)
RICINC 0.017* (0.009) 0.0661*** (0.0163) 0.0221** (0.0104)
COSEED 7.753 (47.103) −9.0323 (68.8715) 24.76333 (47.5518)
AGE2 14.295* (8.606) −6.2775 (4.9782) 13.9342 (8.9275)
AGE −1458.261* (795.262) 822.0033 (373.587) −989.1075 (855.5659)
HSIZE −2194.872*** (309.838) −2613.632*** (504.914) −2599.768*** (427.7767)
YRESID 210.599** (82.123) −50.5019 (228.7992) 209.3046** (94.1272)
YEDUC 644.065*** (165.175) 130.358 (217.61) 759.556*** (244.9649)
HOWN 3593.435 (3504.657) 12928.19 (9626.319) 3786.609 (3662.154)
OFFINC 6124.644* (3411.996) 2027.904 (7291.49) 8152.286** (3957.274)
SEACES 4642.414 (3554.374) −2443.123 (5420.077) 2981.639 (3392.325)
ACREDIT −2291.433 (2228.743) 3121.345 (3700.875) 504.0302 (2638.233)
SEDIST 99.407 (158.767) −304.55 (281.2507) 32.52597 (254.5398)
TOTAREA −179.980 (455.375) 175.0563 (877.4499) 810.1287 (533.2662)
CONSTANT 47485.940** (23754.530) 4070.513 (32750.9) 36323.91 (24493.74)
Mills Lambda 15272.930** (6612.894) 17344.93* (9388.366) 12547.09* (7334.769)
Determinants of Market Participation: Probit Model
MEORG −0.504*** (0.172) −0.6321(0.7890) −0.3546* (0.1992)
EXCONT −0.341** (0.165) −0.5191(0.9021) −0.8787*** (0.2050)
VOCT −0.442** (0.193) −2.8322** (1.3907) −0.3375 (0.2339)
YEDUC 0.023* (0.013) 0.1591(0.1271) 0.0332** (0.0163)
GNR 0.666*** (0.176) 3.0568**(1.2142) 0.5249*** (0.2016)
AGE2 −0.001 (0.001) −0.0016 (0.0020) −0.0004 (0.0005)
AGE 0.072 (0.047) 0.1184 (0.2049) 7.49E-02 (5.07E-02)
HSIZE −0.063*** (0.019) 0.1113 (0.1474) −0.1132*** (0.0243)
YRESID −0.0025 (0.0664) −0.0128 (0.0283) −0.0061 (0.0075)
SEACES 0.971*** (0.150) 1.1562 (0.7573) 0.8023*** (0.1741)
RICINC 1.32E-06* (7.99E-07) −3.03E-06 (4.41E-06) 1.86E-07(9.79E-07)
COSEED 0.011*** (0.003) −0.0060 (0.0158) 0.0042261 (0.0039)
ACREDIT 0.353* (0.186) 0.0927 (0.8604) 0.6325*** (0.2040)
HOWN 0.312 (0.257) 2.1323** (1.0402) 0.1723 (0.2997)
OFFINC −0.537* (0.276) −2.7412** (1.3619) −0.8467*** (0.3119)
TOTAREA 0.003 (0.042) 0.1239 (0.1607) 0.0696 (0.0498)
SEDIST −0.026* (0.011) −0.0306 (0.0325) −0.0411*** (0.0135)
YIELD 0.000*** (0.000) 0.0007** (0.0003) 0.0002*** (0.0000)
CONSTANT −3.672*** (1.235) −3.8903 (5.8576) −2.2379 (1.3921)
RHO 0.881 1.0000 0.78613
SIGMA 17344.686 17344.934 15963.17
Number of observations 557.000 170.000 454.000
Censored observations 161.00 18.000 150.000
Uncensored observations 396.00 152.000 304.000
Wald chi2 (17) 142.40 93.680 99.480
Prob > chi2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
  1. Source: Field survey, 2010. ***, **, and * implies significant at 1 %, 5 %, and 10 % respectively
  2. Note: Figures in Parentheses are the standard error