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Table 2 Variability of farm income over time within the considered groups and the whole sub-sample of farms with positive market income. Median of the coefficients of variation of farm income

From: Do CAP direct payments stabilise farm income? Empirical evidences from a constant sample of Italian farms

   CV(FI)    CV(FI)
Mediand Mediand
Types of farming (TF): TF   Economic size (ESU):    
 Specialist field crops 1 0.666 a b  Small (Classes 1, 2, 3)   0.734 a
 Specialist horticulture 2 0.604 b c d  Medium (Classes 4, 5, 6)   0.606 b
 Specialist permanent crops 3 0.659 a b  Large (Classes 7, 8)   0.619 b
 Specialist grazing livestock 4 0.576 c d PSE level:   
 Specialist granivore 5 0.725 a b  No DP 0 0.599 b c
 Mixed cropping 6 0.710 a b  Low 1st 0.667 a b
 Mixed livestock and Mixed crops-livestock 7 0.658 a b c  Low-Medium 2nd 0.629 a b c
     Medium-High 3rd 0.661 a b
Total sample   0.636  High 4th 0.617 a b c
  1. Source: Own elaborations on a constant sample of the whole Italian FADN farms, years 2003–2012
  2. dDifferences between groups statistically significant at 5 % confidence interval according to Wilcoxon rank-sum test