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Table 2 Socioeconomic characteristics of honey producers

From: Impact of supply chain coordination on honey farmers’ income in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Variable Sample Average Contract Cooperative Spot market (base)
Sex (male = 1, female = 0) 0.92 0.97 0.86 a 0.92
(0.01) (0.03) (0.07) (0.01)
Age in years 43.65 39.91 b 43.18 44.08
(0.62) (1.53) (2.58) (0.70)
Household size in number 6.22 6.51 5.64 a 6.23
(0.11) (0.40) (0.40) (0.11)
Illiterate (1 = yes, 0 = no) 0.46 0.34 a 0.46 0.47
(0.03) (0.08) (0.10) (0.03)
At least primary education (1 = yes, 0 = no) 0.56 0.66 a 0.54 0.53
(0.03) (0.08) (0.10) (0.03)
Active family size (number) 2.53 2.51 2.50 2.54
(0.05) (0.22) (0.24) (0.06)
Experience (years) 7.34 7.71 7.38 7.29
(0.35) (1.19) (1.56) (0.37)
Land size (hectares) 0.86 0.95 0.89 0.85
(0.03) (0.08) (0.11) (0.03)
Tropical livestock units 4.62 4.68 4.44 4.63
(0.21) (0.47) (0.89) (0.24)
Tropical livestock units 5 years (recall) 4.30 4.52 4.20 4.29
(0.32) (0.74) (0.82) (0.36)
Distance to asphalt road (km) 21.39 29.79 c 32.07 c 19.60
(0.88) (3.03) (2.78) (0.94)
Distance to Mekelle (km) 71.80 66.67 55.48 b 72.52
(2.13) (6.94) (5.54) (2.37)
No. of observations 395 35 28 332
  1. Source: Calculated from own survey data
  2. Figures in parenthesis are standard errors
  3. a . b , c significance at 10, 5 and 1 % significance level for the t-test