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Table 7 Balancing properties of covariates in treated and control groups for kernel matching (Full Model)

From: Impact of supply chain coordination on honey farmers’ income in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Variable Unmatched Mean Kernel matching Nearest neighbor matching
Matched Treated Control Percent bias Percent reduced bias t Percent bias Percent reduced bias t
Age, household head Unmatched 39.91 44.19 -39.2   -1.96 b -39.2   -1.96 b
  Matched 40.55 40.14 3.7 90.5 0.47 4.2 89.3 0.66
Illiterate, household head Unmatched 0.34 0.47 -25.8   -1.43 -25.8   -1.43
Matched 0.33 0.36 -4.5 82.7 0.09 6.8 73.7 0.57
Size of household Unmatched 6.51 6.26 11.6   0.69 11.6   0.69
  Matched 6.55 6.51 1.8 84.8 -0.27 3.8 67.2 -0.71
Active family members Unmatched 2.51 2.54 -2.1   -0.13 -2.1   -0.13
Matched 2.55 2.50 4.1 -94.8 0.36 -0.5 76.6 -0.10
Production experience Unmatched 7.71 7.32 5.7   0.33 5.7   0.33
Matched 8.06 7.76 4.3 24.2 0.26 -5.4 6.2 -0.09
Land size Unmatched 0.95 0.86 19.1   1.02 19.1   1.02
  Matched 0.95 0.90 10.3 46.1 0.03 4.9 74.2 -0.70
Land size2 Unmatched 1.13 1.03 9.5   0.47 1.03 9.5 0.47
  Matched 1.13 1.04 8.4 11.5 0.04 3.8 60.5 -0.64
Tropical livestock units (5 years recall) Unmatched 4.52 4.33 3.3   0.16 3.3   0.16
Matched 4.67 4.26 7.2 -114.0 -0.18 3.8 -13.2 -0.86
No. of modern hives (5 years recall) Unmatched 1.57 1.15 18.3   1.02 18.3   1.02
Matched 1.67 1.38 12.6 31.1 0.47 -2.5 86.5 -0.36
No. of traditional hives (5 years recall) Unmatched 1.20 1.99 -17.8   -0.80 -17.8   -0.80
Matched 1.27 1.41 -3.1 82.7 0.26 0.6 96.8 0.89
Distance to Mekelle Unmatched 66.67 72.14 -13.0   -0.72 -13.0   -0.72
Matched 67.23 71.64 -10.5 19.3 0.11 -6.6 49.6 0.85
Distance to asphalt road Unmatched 29.79 19.53 58.4   3.34 c 58.4   3.34 c
Matched 28.41 24.89 20.0 65.7 0.23 14.7 74.8 -0.57
Distance to RDO Unmatched 5.14 3.60 27.7   2.35 b 27.7   2.35 b
Matched 3.70 4.06 -6.5 76.4 -1.53 -0.8 97.2 -1.68
  1. a , b , c indicates significance levels at 10,5 and 1 % respectively