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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of log returns from January 1995 till December 2015

From: An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

  1995–2005 (monthly log returns)
Statistic EU butter Oceania butter Crude palm oil Crude oil Brent
Mean −0.20 % 0.25 % −0.32 % 0.93 %
Std 2.71 % 4.32 % 6.61 % 8.84 %
Skewness 0.42 1.21 −0.01 −0.20
Excess kurtosis 0.06 6.82 2.08 −0.08
  2006–2015 (biweekly log returns)
Statistic EU butter Oceania butter Crude palm oil Crude oil Brent
Mean 0.00 % 0.18 % 0.10 % −0.19 %
Std 3.78 % 4.18 % 4.33 % 5.48 %
Skewness −0.09 0.04 −0.70 −0.61
Excess kurtosis 2.49 2.19 2.08 1.82
  1995–2005 (monthly log returns)
  EU butter Oceania butter Crude palm oil Crude oil Brent
EU butter 1 0.33* 0.27* 0.05
Oceania butter   1 0.10 0.11
Crude palm oil    1 −0.14
Crude oil Brent     1
  2006–2015 (biweekly log returns)
  EU butter Oceania butter Crude palm oil Crude oil Brent
EU butter 1 0.39* 0.20* 0.31*
Oceania butter   1 0.19* 0.14**
Crude palm oil    1 0.39*
Crude oil Brent     1
  1. The symbols * and ** denote significance at the 5 and 10 % confidence level, respectively