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Table 2 Standard deviation of market income on Irish farms

From: The single farm payment and income risk in Irish farms 2005–2013

Variable Full sample Dairy only Cattle Sheep Tillage
Initial decoupled subsidies (€10,000) 0.10*** 0.01 0.10*** 0.19*** 0.05
Change in decoupled subsidies (€10,000) 0.13*** 0.09** 0.10*** 0.28*** 0.15**
Log of coupled subsidies 0.02** 0.03 0.03** 0.07 0.03
Log of gross output 0.53*** 0.63*** 0.50*** 0.31*** 1.06***
Initial land owned (100 ha) 0.13** 0.39*** 0.18 0.03 0.12
Initial land let out (100 ha) 0.17 −0.15 0.45 −0.09 −0.81
Initial land rented in (100 ha) 0.24*** 0.50*** 0.18 0.50 0.38
Change in land owned (100 ha) 0.06 −0.09 0.04 0.01 1.69**
Change in land let out (100 ha) −0.25 1.03 −0.72 −0.59 −1.19
Change in land rented in (100 ha) 0.07 0.02 0.08 −0.05 0.07
Livestock units per hectare (100 ha) −0.07* −0.06 0.01 −0.13 −0.12
Daily concentrates per L.U. (kg) 0.01 −0.03 0.02 0.01 −0.04
Crop protection cost (10,000s €) 0.13* 0.24 0.29* −0.03 0.26
Fertiliser cost (10,000s €) −0.03 −0.07 −0.08 0.01 −0.44**
Mean farmer age −0.01 −0.04** 0.01 −0.00 −0.03*
Mean farmer age squared 0.00 0.00** −0.00 0.00 0.00**
Farmer off-farm job 0.02 0.10* 0.01 −0.07 0.16
Spouse off-farm job 0.01 0.03 −0.04 0.12 0.21*
Cattle −0.23***     
Sheep −0.18***     
Tillage −0.33***     
Constant −5.74*** −6.02** −6.28*** −4.51*** 11.00***
N 927 249 494 104 80
\( {R}^2 \) 0.80 0.80 0.76 0.67 0.84
  1. ***, **, *The corresponding coefficients are significant at 1, 5 and 10% level, respectively