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Table 5 Descriptive statistics of innovation variables and control variables

From: Competitive strategies among Ontario farms marketing direct to consumers

Variable Innovation activity reported by respondents
  Not at alla To some extent To a large extent
Product innovation (new to farm)
 New or significantly improved processed product 54 (42.9%) 25 (19.8%) 6 (4.8%)
 New or significantly improved packaging 54 (42.9%) 25 (19.8%) 11 (8.7%)
Marketing innovation (new to farm)
 Marketing channel 51 (40.5%) 36 (28.6%) 15 (11.9%)
 Communications, advertising, or promotion methods 47 (37.3%) 43 (34.1%) 18 (14.3%)
  Median Minimum Maximum
Farming experience (years) 23.00 3.00 55.00
Farm gross sales (categorical)b 4.00 2.00 8.00
  1. aPercentages are based on sample of 126 and may not sum to 100. Residuals are missing data or ‘does not apply’ responses, which received a score of zero in innovation index generation
  2. bCategorical variable where 1 = less than $10,000; 2 = $10,000 to $24,999; 3 = $25,000 to $49,999; 4 = $50,000 to $99,999; 5 = $100,000 to $249,999; 6 = $250,000 to $499,999; 7 = $500,000 to $999,999; and 8 = $1 million and over