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Table 8 Items of managerial orientation scales and scale reliabilities

From: Competitive strategies among Ontario farms marketing direct to consumers

Measurement scale Mean Std. deviation Item-to-total correlation
Market orientation [Alpha = 0.938; AVE = 0.516]
 The business objectives on our farm operation are driven by customer satisfaction. 5.28 1.598 0.627
 We continually monitor our level of commitment to serving customers’ needs. 4.79 1.636 0.765
 Our strategy for competitive advantage is based on our understanding of customer needs. 5.19 1.484 0.756
 Our strategies are driven by our beliefs about how we can create greater value for our customers. 5.15 1.555 0.763
 We measure customer satisfaction regularly. 4.98 1.762 0.744
 We pay close attention to our customers, even after the sale is made. 5.30 1.646 0.744
 We share information with our employees concerning competitors’ strategies. 3.98 1.852 0.592
 We are quick to respond to competitive actions that threaten us. 4.46 1.657 0.658
 We target customers and customer groups where we have, or can develop, a competitive advantage. 4.79 1.603 0.717
 We regularly discuss competitors’ strengths and strategies. 4.17 1.756 0.619
 We regularly visit current customers to see how our products and/or services are meeting their needs. 4.39 1.859 0.741
 We discuss reasons for successful and unsuccessful customer experiences on a regular basis. 4.72 1.652 0.817
 We coordinate all of our business functions (from buying to producing, selling and accounting) in order to better serve the needs of our target markets. 4.62 1.784 0.770
 We understand how everyone in our company can contribute to creating customer value. 5.06 1.599 0.654
Entrepreneurial orientation [Alpha = 0.824; AVE = 0.352]
 A strong emphasis on the use of tried and true products or services for our farm operation. 3.86 1.691 0.431
 No new lines of products or services. 3.59 1.786 0.501
 Changes in product or service lines have been mostly of a minor nature. 3.41 1.790 0.553
 Typically responds to actions which competitors initiate. 3.84 1.286 0.386
 Typically seeks to avoid clashes with competitors, preferring a live-and-let-live attitude. 3.52 1.446 0.549
 Tend to focus on low-risk investment projects (with normal and certain rates of return). 3.26 1.476 0.658
 Owing to the nature of the business environment, it is best to explore our options gradually via cautious, incremental behaviour. 3.25 1.440 0.664
 Typically adopt a cautious wait and see attitude in order to minimize the probability of making costly decision. 3.29 1.469 0.666