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Table 4 Results of the means comparison, logit, and survival analyses to explain initial adoption

From: Dynamics of EU food safety certification: a survival analysis of firm decisions

  Mean Means comparison Logit modela Survival analysisb
  All respondents Certified once No HACCP
Incentive
 Output price (US$/kg) 3.44 4.12 2.90 0.32* (0.14) 1.44** (0.42)
 EU–US price difference (US$/kg) −0.25 −0.35 0.00 −0.03 (0.43) 0.99 (0.87)
 EU–others price difference (US$/kg) 1.29 1.25 1.37 −0.10 (0.22) 0.86 (0.79)
 Price of labor (US$/day) 2.93 2.95 2.87 −0.03 (0.23) 1.03 (0.97)
 Price of materials (US$/kg)c 2.14 2.46 1.32*   
 Price of capital (US$/unit of capital) 0.19 0.21 0.14** 0.06 (0.32) 0.00 (0.00)
 Number of markets (number) 3.00 4.00 1.00*** 0.02 (0.11) 1.11 (0.87)
 Number of product forms (number) 2.00 2.00 3.00* −0.06 (0.21) 0.74* (0.32)
 Output (000 tons/year) 2.60 3.60 0.10** 0.09* (0.03) 1.01** (0.25)
Capacity
 Difficulty in credit access (dummy = 0, 1) 0.52 0.30 0.63** 0.04 (0.04) 0.81 (0.96)
 Years in business (number) 10.40 11.25 7.00*** 0.01 (0.02) 0.96 (1.01)
 Active in associations (dummy = 0, 1) 0.58 0.70 0.11** 0.07 (0.05) 2.08**** (0.59)
 Number of associations (number)d 1.40 2.00 0.22**   
 Age of plant facility (number) 9.30 10.20 8.30 0.02 (0.03) 0.96 (0.87)
N     59 59
Pseudo R squared     0.36  
% correctly predicted     60%  
Schoenfeld residual      0.32
  1. Source: various firm interviews conducted by the authors. The test of difference in means was performed using a means comparison test (t test) of unequal variances (using both Satterthwaite’s and Welch’s formulas) in the Stata program. Figures in parentheses are the standard errors
  2. ***Significant difference in averages at <0.01 level of significance; **at <0.05 level of significance; *at <0.10 level of significance
  3. aFigures presented here are marginal effects
  4. bFigures presented here are hazard ratios
  5. cDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between output price level and price of materials, we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using output price level
  6. dDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between “number of association memberships” and “being active in these associations,” we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using “being active in these associations”