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Table 5 Results of the means comparison, logit, and survival analyses to explain continued adoption (non-decertification)

From: Dynamics of EU food safety certification: a survival analysis of firm decisions

Variable Means comparison Logit modela Survival analysisb
Certified Decertified
Incentive
 Output price level (US$/kilogram [kg]) 3.95 4.22 1.28 (0.87) 0.30* (0.12)
 EU–US price difference (US$/kg) −0.01 −0.94*** −0.94** (0.30) 0.01*** (0.00)
 EU–others price difference (US$/kg) 1.35 1.09 −0.65** (0.21) 1.09 (0.89)
 Price of labor (US$/day) 3.01 2.85 0.33 (0.22) 0.37*** (0.12)
 Price of materials (US$/kg)c 2.25 2.73   
 Price of capital (US$/kg) 0.20 0.22 −0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.00)
 Number of markets (number) 3.00 3.00 0.02 (0.02) 0.47*** (0.13)
 Number of product forms (number) 2.00 2.00 0.23 (0.21) 2.50*** (0.69)
 Output (000 tons/year) 3.70 3.40 −0.25 (0.22) 0.97 (0.65)
Capacity
 Difficulty in credit access (dummy = 0, 1) 0.35 0.50 0.42* (0.19) 3.04*** (1.01)
 Years in business (number) 10.50 11.30 0.06 (0.05) 1.11 (1.02)
 Active in associations (dummy = 0, 1) 0.80 0.60 −0.01 (0.01) 0.30*** (0.05)
 Number of associations (number)d 2.00 2.00   
 Age of plant facility (number) 9.00 11.20 −0.07 (0.06) 0.81 (0.67)
N    59 59
Pseudo R squared    0.29  
% correctly predicted    55%  
Schoenfeld residual     0.29
  1. The test of difference in means was performed using a means comparison test (t test) of unequal variances (using both Satterthwaite’s and Welch’s formulas) in the Stata program. Figures in parentheses are standard errors
  2. ***Significant difference in averages at <0.01 level of significance; **at <0.05 level of significance; *at <0.10 level of significance
  3. aFigures presented here are the marginal effects
  4. bFigures presented here are the hazard ratios
  5. cDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between output price level and price of materials, we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using output price level
  6. dDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between “number of association memberships” and “being active in these associations,” we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using “being active in these associations”