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Table 5 Results of the means comparison, logit, and survival analyses to explain continued adoption (non-decertification)

From: Dynamics of EU food safety certification: a survival analysis of firm decisions

Variable Means comparison Logit modela Survival analysisb
Certified Decertified
Incentive
 Output price level (US$/kilogram [kg]) 3.95 4.22 1.28
(0.87)
0.30*
(0.12)
 EU–US price difference (US$/kg) −0.01 −0.94*** −0.94**
(0.30)
0.01***
(0.00)
 EU–others price difference (US$/kg) 1.35 1.09 −0.65**
(0.21)
1.09
(0.89)
 Price of labor (US$/day) 3.01 2.85 0.33
(0.22)
0.37***
(0.12)
 Price of materials (US$/kg)c 2.25 2.73   
 Price of capital (US$/kg) 0.20 0.22 −0.01
(0.02)
0.00
(0.00)
 Number of markets (number) 3.00 3.00 0.02
(0.02)
0.47***
(0.13)
 Number of product forms (number) 2.00 2.00 0.23
(0.21)
2.50***
(0.69)
 Output (000 tons/year) 3.70 3.40 −0.25
(0.22)
0.97
(0.65)
Capacity
 Difficulty in credit access (dummy = 0, 1) 0.35 0.50 0.42*
(0.19)
3.04***
(1.01)
 Years in business (number) 10.50 11.30 0.06
(0.05)
1.11
(1.02)
 Active in associations (dummy = 0, 1) 0.80 0.60 −0.01
(0.01)
0.30***
(0.05)
 Number of associations (number)d 2.00 2.00   
 Age of plant facility (number) 9.00 11.20 −0.07
(0.06)
0.81
(0.67)
N    59 59
Pseudo R squared    0.29  
% correctly predicted    55%  
Schoenfeld residual     0.29
  1. The test of difference in means was performed using a means comparison test (t test) of unequal variances (using both Satterthwaite’s and Welch’s formulas) in the Stata program. Figures in parentheses are standard errors
  2. ***Significant difference in averages at <0.01 level of significance; **at <0.05 level of significance; *at <0.10 level of significance
  3. aFigures presented here are the marginal effects
  4. bFigures presented here are the hazard ratios
  5. cDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between output price level and price of materials, we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using output price level
  6. dDue to a multicollinearity problem from the high correlation between “number of association memberships” and “being active in these associations,” we were able to use only one of these variables at a time in the models. However, the two models showed similar results. The one presented here is the one using “being active in these associations”