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Table 2 Variable definitions and summary statistics

From: Predicting minimum tillage adoption among smallholder farmers using micro-level and policy variables

Variable Description Pooled (N = 11,188) Ethiopia (N = 3861) Kenya (N = 2851) Malawi (N = 2937) Tanzania (N = 1539)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Minimum tillage and mulching 0.22 0.41 0.30 0.46 0.05 0.21 0.35 0.48 0.11 0.31
Sex of household head (male = 1, female = 0) 0.87 0.33 0.94 0.24 0.82 0.39 0.83 0.37 0.88 0.32
Age of the household head (years) 45.0 14.2 42.5 12.7 50.7 14.3 42.4 14.4 45.9 13.8
Education of the household head (years of schooling completed) 5.21 3.96 3.03 3.33 7.54 3.82 5.73 3.74 5.40 3.16
Main source of income:           
 Crop and livestock farming 0.93 0.26 0.99 0.11 0.77 0.42 1.0 NA 0.94 0.23
 Salaried employment 0.03 0.16 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.27 NA NA 0.04 0.19
 Non-farm self-employment 0.03 0.17 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.30 NA NA 0.02 0.13
 Casual labour 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.23 NA NA 0.002 0.04
 Number of family members 5.98 2.56 6.81 2.60 5.85 2.70 5.21 2.17 5.65 2.29
 Livestock owned (in tropical livestock units (TLU)) 4.75 6.19 6.24 5.74 2.40 2.47 0.72 1.74 3.49 7.15
 Total farm size cultivated (ha) 2.75 3.12 2.58 1.85 1.32 3.14 3.38 2.60 4.66 4.78
 Total non-livestock assets owned by the household in ($) 647 1163 883 1371 740 1134 506 1033 152 507
 Household is credit constrained (yes = 1) 0.47 0.50 0.56 0.50 0.45 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.26 0.44
 Respondent confident in skill and advice of extension provider (yes = 1) 0.28 0.45 0.29 0.45 0.26 0.44 0.25 0.43 0.39 0.49
Perceived plot soil fertility           0.52
 Poor 0.11 0.31 0.07 0.25 0.14 0.35 0.14 0.34 0.08 0.28
 Medium 0.50 0.50 0.47 0.50 0.54 0.50 0.39 0.49 0.72 0.45
 Good 0.39 0.49 0.47 0.50 0.32 0.47 0.48 0.50 0.20 0.40
Perceived plot slopes           
 Gentle/flat 0.57 0.50 0.67 0.47 0.47 0.50 0.62 0.49 0.39 0.49
 Medium 0.37 0.48 0.30 0.46 0.49 0.50 0.27 0.44 0.51 0.50
 Steep 0.06 0.24 0.03 0.17 0.04 0.20 0.11 0.31 0.10 0.29
 Number of grain traders from outside village known to respondent 4.26 6.20 4.21 5.35 3.52 3.59 6.14 6.04 2.19 10.10
 Number of non-relatives from outside the village respondent can rely on for help 4.27 8.30 4.93 10.84 5.98 8.80 2.66 4.00 2.54 4.23
 Household head belongs to a farmers’ association (cooperatives, etc.) 1 = yes, 0 otherwise 0.25 0.44 0.20 0.40 0.19 0.40 0.39 0.49 0.25 0.43
 Walking minutes to the nearest market 64.79 61.42 47.99 34.67 80.65 54.72 32.69 26.47 138.83 94.36
 Drought perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1) NA NA NA NA 0.15 0.36 NA NA NA NA
 Pests and diseases perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1) NA NA NA NA 0.15 0.36 NA NA NA NA
 High input and low crop prices perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1) NA NA NA NA 0.19 0.39 NA NA NA NA
 Personal health or economic situation perceived as a major future risk (yes = 1) NA NA NA NA 0.17 0.38 NA NA NA NA
  1. NA not applicable