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Table 1 Definition of variables and hypotheses

From: Impact of farmer education on farm productivity under varying technologies: case of paddy growers in India

Variable Description Hypothesized sign
Dependent variable
 ADPN Dummy for the adoption of modern varieties of paddy (1 if adopted, 0 otherwise)  
 YIELD Paddy yield in kilogram (kg/ha)  
Independent variables
 EXP Farming experience of a farmer (years) +
 EDNH Farmer’s education (years of schooling) +
 EDNDMY-1 Head’s education dummy (EDNDUMMY = 1 if 5 years or more of schooling, and 0 otherwise) +
 EDNDMY-2 Head’s education dummy (EDNDUMMY = 1 if 10 years or more of schooling, and 0 otherwise) +
 AVGEDN Average education of household (average years of schooling of all household members) +
 HS Household size (numbers) ?
 ARPDY Area under paddy cultivation (ha) +
 TLC Total labor cost (rupees/ha) +
 SQ Soil quality on the basis of farmers own assessment (1 if fertile, 0 otherwise) +
 FRT Total fertilizer use (kg/ha) +
 ECDMY Ecosystem dummy (1 if irrigated ecosystem, 0 if rainfed ecosystem) +
 EXTN Contacts with extension officials (1 if yes, 0 if no) +
 TNCY Tenancy structure (proportion of leased-in area to total operated landholding) ?
 SEED Availability of MV seeds to the farmer through barter exchange or purchasing from the market (1 if exchanged, 0 if purchased) +
 CRDIT Access to credit (1 if accessed, 0 if no) +
 SOC Social capital in the form of developmental group membership (1 if member of a group, 0 if no) +
 MKTD Distance to the local market (kilometers)
 MEDIA Access to media (1 if he owns television or radio, 0 otherwise) +
 LIVSTK Ownership of livestock (no. of livestock adult equivalent) +
 SRTMC Farmer’s perception about short maturity characteristics of MVs (1 if yes, 0 if no) +
 YLDC Farmer’s perception about higher yield characteristics of MVs (1 if yes, 0 if no) +
 TASTEC Farmer’s perception about taste characteristic (1 if yes, 0 no) +
  1. The hypotheses indicate the hypothetical relationship between the explanatory variables with MVs adoption (dependent variable). The question mark in the hypothesis indicates the existence of an ambiguous theoretical relation between that variable and adoption
  2. Source: author’s field survey 2012 to 2013