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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of selected variables for participants and non-participants

From: Impact of dairy hubs on smallholder welfare: empirical evidence from Kenya

Variable Description of variable Mean Difference in means
Participants Non-participants
Treatment variable
 Participant 1 if farmer participates in dairy hub, 0 otherwise
Outcome variables
 Milk yields Milk output per cow/day/litre 4.93 3.90 1.03**
 Net returns Milk gross revenue minus variable investment costs (1000 Ksh/year) 473 317 156**
Independent variables
 Age Age of household head (years) 46.4 49.1 − 2.7***
 Education Years of schooling of household head 8.7 7.6 1.1***
 Experience Dairy farming experience (years) 19.4 23.6 − 4.2**
 Ext. service 1 if farmer has contact with extension agent, 0 otherwise 0.613 0.431 0.182
 Credit access 1 if farmer has access to credit, 0 otherwise 0.37 0.17 0.20***
 Landholding Size of landholding in hectare 2.9 1.8 1.1**
 Livestock Total cattle owned (tropical livestock unit) 6.87 3.79 3.08
 Distance Distance to hub (km) 7 13 − 6***
 Sex 1 if male-headed, 0 otherwise 0.818 0.661 0.157***
 Off-farm 1 if the household participated in off-farm employment, 0 otherwise 0.466 0.416 0.050
 HH size Number of adult household members in adult 6 4 2***
 Dependents Number of household aged < 14 and > 64 years 3 4 −1
Fgroup Membership in farmers’ group 67.58 47.39 20.19***
DistExt Distance to extension office (minutes of walking time) 62 102 − 40
  1. Exchange rate US $1 = 100 Ksh in 2017
  2. Notes: Ksh, Kenyan Shillings
  3. ***Mean difference significant at 1%
  4. **Mean difference significant at 5%