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Table 2 Determinants of dairy hub participation and the impact of participation on milk yields

From: Impact of dairy hubs on smallholder welfare: empirical evidence from Kenya

Variable Selection Milk yields
Participants Non-participants
Coefficient Std. error Coefficient Std. error Coefficient Std. error
Constant 0.387 0.524 1.254** 0.531 − 1.682 3.571
Age − 0.161 0.109 − 0.216 0.378 0.076 0.056
Education 0.439*** 0.127 3.374** 1.282 2.019*** 1.015
Experience 0.237 0.145 0.296 0.182 0.624 0.403
Ext. service 0.459** 0.206 2.768** 1.123 5.520** 2.361
Credit access 0.071** 0.03 0.056** 0.022 0.039*** 0.014
Landholding 0.178** 0.07 0.735 0.498 − 0.627* 0.331
Livestock 0.199** 0.101 0.047*** 0.016 0.593 0.376
Distance − 0.171*** 0.04 − 0.076*** 0.02 − 0.088*** 0.01
Sex 0.035 0.27 − 0.237 0.16 − 0.058 0.13
Off-farm − 0.256** 0.11 0.104 0.07 0.091*** 0.03
HH size − 0.209*** 0.08 0.179** 0.09 − 0.217 0.15
Dependents − 0.172 0.11 − 0.336 0.683 0.187 0.127
F group 0.008 0.037 0.085 0.089 0.071 0.061
Res(DistExt) lnσ NP 0.073 0.061    0.427*** 0.119
ρ NP      − 0.177 − 1.492
lnσ P    0.627*** 0.143   
ρ P    −0.537*** 0.184   
Log likelihood − 485.438     
χ2 statistics for overidentification 0.605 [0.41]  
Likelihood ratio test of independent equations χ2(1) 17.63***
  1. Note: p value in square brackets. Res(DistExt)—RES denote residuals from the first-stage regressions for distance to agriculture extension office
  2. *Significance at the 10% level
  3. **Significance at the 5% level
  4. ***Significance at the 1% level