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Table 7 Economic surplus

From: Assessing post-harvest labor shortages, wages, and welfare

  Post-shock competitive equilibrium Post-shock fixed wage Welfare change Post-shock fixed wage transport Welfare change transport
Pome commodity market (million $)
 Consumer 8032.6 6788.0 − 1244.6 1344.1 − 6688.4
 Firm 1002.2 2187.9 1186.7 1002.2 0.0
 Total 9034.8 8975.9 − 58.9 2346.4 − 6688.4
Prunus commodity market (million $)
 Consumer 699.2 461.5 − 237.7 249.8 − 449.3
 Firm 113.8 322.9 209.1 113.8 0.0
 Total 813.0 784.4 − 28.6 363.6 − 449.3
Pre-harvest labor market (million $)
 Pre-harvest labor 110.7 61.9 − 48.8 61.9 − 48.8
 Firm 564.4 570.3 5.9 570.3 5.9
 Total 675.1 632.2 − 42.9 632.2 − 42.9
Post-harvest labor market (million $)
 Post-harvest labor 253.6 237.6 − 16.0 237.6 − 16.0
 Firms 842.1 856.8 14.7 856.8 14.7
 Total 1095.7 1094.4 − 1.2 1094.4 − 1.2
Total firms (million $)
 Total pome firms 2179.3 3382.2 1202.9 2196.5 17.2
 Total prunus firms 343.3 555.7 212.4 346.6 3.4
  1. Notes: Surplus in labor markets is calculated by multiplying the estimated equilibrium wage times the average number of workers in each occupation that each industry uses, less the opportunity cost of labor as indicated by the labor supply curve, and then adjusting for 40 h per week for 50 weeks per year. Total firms surplus (not profit) is the sum of surplus from the specific commodity market plus the welfare from the pre-harvest and post-harvest labor markets determined by the ratio of industry employment to total employment for each activity type. Values are for 2013