Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 IV estimation of log per capita food expenditure using shadow prices

From: Welfare and food security response of animal feed and water resource scarcity in Northern Ethiopia

Variables (OLS) (IV) (OLS) (IV) (OLS) (IV)
lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE lnPCFE
Ln(output) 0.0998*** 0.0698*** 0.0984*** 0.0677*** 0.0842*** 0.0587***
(0.0122) (0.0164) (0.0123) (0.0164) (0.0131) (0.0165)
Ln(livestock) 0.0381*** 0.0337** 0.0368*** 0.0330** 0.0363*** 0.0327**
(0.0130) (0.0134) (0.0130) (0.0135) (0.0129) (0.0133)
Ln(Family size) − 0.388*** − 0.366*** − 0.380*** − 0.356*** − 0.379*** − 0.360***
(0.0536) (0.0556) (0.0538) (0.0562) (0.0533) (0.0550)
Gender(1/0) − 0.103* − 0.118* − 0.0846 − 0.105* − 0.113* − 0.125**
(0.0593) (0.0612) (0.0595) (0.0618) (0.0591) (0.0605)
Information(1/0) 0.0544 0.0363 0.0401 0.0250 0.0412 0.0267
(0.0546) (0.0564) (0.0546) (0.0567) (0.0544) (0.0559)
Location(1/0) − 0.0480 − 0.0629 − 0.0567 − 0.0910 − 0.126 − 0.139
(0.145) (0.149) (0.141) (0.146) (0.140) (0.143)
Ln(MarketD) 0.00360 0.0173 0.000178 0.0150 0.00219 0.0157
(0.0341) (0.0354) (0.0342) (0.0357) (0.0339) (0.0350)
Ashock13(1/0) − 0.494** − 0.408** − 0.526*** − 0.431** − 0.505*** − 0.426**
(0.193) (0.201) (0.192) (0.201) (0.192) (0.198)
Ln(Shocks) 0.220 0.354* 0.241 0.396* 0.247 0.378*
(0.203) (0.214) (0.199) (0.212) (0.199) (0.210)
Religion(1/0) 0.119* 0.143* 0.0948 0.122* 0.111 0.132*
(0.0712) (0.0736) (0.0707) (0.0736) (0.0704) (0.0724)
Network(1/0) − 0.0839 − 0.170*** − 0.0833 − 0.167*** − 0.0677 − 0.147**
(0.0567) (0.0657) (0.0564) (0.0646) (0.0557) (0.0645)
Age(years) − 0.000615 − 0.000883 − 0.000760 − 0.000914 − 0.000504 − 0.000746
(0.00176) (0.00181) (0.00176) (0.00182) (0.00175) (0.00179)
Ln(Income) 0.0437*** 0.0560*** 0.0426*** 0.0558*** 0.0432*** 0.0547***
(0.00189) (0.00476) (0.00190) (0.00482) (0.00189) (0.00478)
Ln(ShadowPW) − 0.0520* − 0.0528*     
(0.0295) (0.0303)     
Ln(ShadowPG)    − 0.0972*** − 0.0669**   
   (0.0286) (0.0312)   
Ln(ShadowPF)      − 0.0525*** − 0.0441**
     (0.0172) (0.0178)
Constant 5.753*** 5.672*** 6.052*** 5.785*** 5.835*** 5.702***
(0.300) (0.309) (0.308) (0.331) (0.283) (0.294)
R-squared 0.702 0.676 0.705 0.675 0.706 0.684
First stage
 Average rainfall   0.1665***   0.1459***   0.1629***
  (0. .0573)   (0. 0581)   (0.0574)
 Shock   − 20.1556***   − 19.932***   − 20.004***
  (2.184)   (2.1718)   (2.1765)
 Observation 496 496 496 496 496 496
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10%, probability levels, respectively