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Table 5 Effect of water, grazing, and feed scarcity on log PCFE and food security

From: Welfare and food security response of animal feed and water resource scarcity in Northern Ethiopia

Variables PCFE Food security
All Male Female All Male Female
A. Walking distance
 Ln(WaterD) − 0.131*** − 0.1492*** − 0.0607 − 0.0839*** − 0.0803* − 0.0978
(0.0320) (0.0366) (0.0665) (0.0291) (0.0324) (0.0762)
 Ln(GrazingD) − 0.0888** − 0.1008** − 0.0339 − 0.1190*** − 0.1160*** − 0.1507*
(0.0347) (0.0406) (0.0724) (0.0335) (0.0384) (0.0901)
 Ln(FeedD) − 0.0716*** − 0.0779*** − 0.0394 − 0.0708*** − 0.0603** − 0. 0822*
(0.0248) (0.0287) (0.0497) (0.0234) (0. 0277) (0.0495)
 Observations 496 370 126 514 382 132
B. Shadow value
 Ln(ShadowPW) − 0.0528* − 0.0497 − 0.0550 − 0.0594* − 0.0432 − 0.1447*
(0.0303) (0.0352) (0.0616) (0.0327) (0.0373) (0.0878)
 Ln(ShadowPG) − 0.0669** − 0. 0706** − 0. 0358 − 0.0533* − 0.0513 − 0.0864
(0.0312) (0.0352) (0.0705) (0.0307) (0.0357) (0.0659)
 Ln(ShadowPF) − 0.0441** − 0. 0536*** − 0.0082 − 0.0418** − 0.0416* − 0.0330
(0.0178) (0.0203) (0.0392) (0.0185) (0.0215) (0.0394)
 Observations 496 370 126 514 382 132
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability levels, respectively