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# Table 4 Mixed-effect estimation result without shocks

Variables (1) (2) (3)
Weight-for-age z-score Length/height-for-age z-score Weight-for-length/height z-score
Age of a child in months − 0.008*** − 0.004 − 0.006**
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Breastfeeding duration in months 0.007*** 0.013*** − 0.000
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Male dummy 0.004 − 0.002 − 0.038
(0.08) (0.12) (0.08)
Household size 0.006 0.033 − 0.009
(0.02) (0.04) (0.03)
Number of sisters − 0.031 − 0.071** 0.017
(0.02) (0.03) (0.02)
What was the total number of meals that were shared over the past 7 days with 0.020 0.002 0.026
(0.02) (0.03) (0.02)
HH distance in (km) to nearest major road 0.003 0.007** − 0.000
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Plot distance in (km) to HH − 0.009* − 0.015* − 0.002
(0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
1 if medical aid, 0 otherwise − 0.123 0.053 − 0.232**
(0.08) (0.12) (0.09)
Mother’s hours spent on collecting firewood 0.009 0.006 0.011
(0.03) (0.04) (0.03)
How many rooms 0.154*** 0.185*** 0.059
(0.03) (0.05) (0.04)
Yes if credit over the past 12 months, 0 otherwise − 0.025 − 0.069 0.019
(0.08) (0.11) (0.08)
1 if spouse live together, 0 otherwise 0.094 − 0.088 0.156
(0.14) (0.21) (0.15)
Mother’s hours spent in agric activity in the last 7 days? 0.002 0.004 − 0.001
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Mother’s hours spent working at PSNP within 12 months − 0.003 − 0.008 0.002
(0.00) (0.01) (0.00)
Max_primary 0.275*** 0.340*** 0.089
(0.09) (0.13) (0.09)
Junior 0.312 0.017 0.417*
(0.24) (0.34) (0.24)
Senior and above 0.718*** 0.672* 0.481*
(0.25) (0.37) (0.26)
Tigrai − 0.192 − 0.333 − 0.053
(0.18) (0.25) (0.18)
Oromo 0.356*** 0.465** 0.143
(0.13) (0.19) (0.13)
SNNP 0.210 0.081 0.244*
(0.14) (0.20) (0.14)
Other regions 0.375** 0.420** 0.190
(0.15) (0.21) (0.15)
Tropic-warm/semiarid − 0.037 − 0.920* 0.767**
(0.38) (0.55) (0.39)
Tropic-warm/subhumid 0.156 − 0.459 0.686*
(0.40) (0.58) (0.41)
Tropic-warm/humid 1.492 0.471 1.902
(1.27) (1.89) (1.40)
Tropic-cool/arid − 0.391 − 1.207 0.422
(0.74) (1.08) (0.78)
Tropic-cool/semiarid 0.218 − 0.797 1.093***
(0.37) (0.54) (0.38)
Tropic-cool/subhumid 0.263 − 0.850 1.166***
(0.38) (0.55) (0.39)
Tropic-cool/humid 0.067 − 0.977* 1.002**
(0.39) (0.57) (0.40)
Constant − 1.824 − 1.446 − 1.598
(0.46) (0.66) (0.47)
Number of observations 1427 1427 1427
SD (idcoleg1) − 0.300 − 0.036 − 0.503
(0.06) (0.07) (0.10)
SD (idclase1) − 1.066 − 0.913 − 11.752
(0.32) (0.56) (505.76)
SD (residual) − 0.072 0.406 0.166
(0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
ICC-L1
ICC-L2
-2LL − 2242.363 − 2834.628 − 2410.102
df 29.0 29.0 29.0
1. Source: Authors’ estimation result from LSMS data in Ethiopia, standard errors in parentheses, no. of observation = 1427, ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1