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Table 3 Parameter estimates from multivariate probit and individual probit models for estimating determinants of pillars of competitiveness in HVMC

From: Determinants of the competitiveness of smallholder African indigenous vegetable farmers in high-value agro-food chains in Kenya: A multivariate probit regression analysis

Variable Multivariate probit estimates Individual probit estimates
HVM GRP CRD EXT HVM GRP CRD EXT
Household size 0.0130 (0.0213) − 0.0083 (0.0189) 0.0348* (0.0207) 0.0243 (0.0186) 0.0008 (0.0052) − 0.0030 (0.0061) 0.0088* (0.0054) 0.0079 (0.0064)
Gender − 0.1936 (0.1597) 0.1548 (0.1488) − 0.0653 (0.1636) − 0.0069 (0.1414) − 0.0425 (0.0400) 0.0424 (0.0463) − 0.0219 (0.0409) − 0.0056 (0.0485)
Age 0.0006 (0.0036) 0.0007 (0.0033) 0.0004 (0.0037) − 0.0001 (0.0033) 0.0001 (0.0009) 0.0001 (0.0010) 0.0004 (0.0009) − 0.0001 (0.0011)
Marital status 0.2254 (0.1611) 0.0686 (0.1476) 0.0324 (0.1635) − 0.0021 (0.1407) 0.0483 (0.0396) 0.0275 (0.0459) 0.0054 (0.0405) − 0.0010 (0.0481)
Education − 0.0066 (0.0103) 0.0003 (0.0096) 0.0421*** (0.0104) 0.0229** (0.0092) − 0.0018 (0.0026) 0.0008 (0.0030) 0.0106*** (0.0027) 0.0077** (0.0032)
Land tenure 0.1614 (0.1490) 0.1001 (0.1269) − 0.2925** (0.1298) 0.0365 (0.1221) 0.0346 (0.0347) 0.0306 (0.0401) − 0.0847** (0.0355) 0.0115 (0.0420)
Coping with PMS 0.0023 (0.0940) 0.0424 (0.0846) 0.2747*** (0.0924) 0.1446* (0.0818) 0.0064 (0.0233) 0.0129 (0.0269) 0.0748*** (0.0238) 0.0486* (0.0282)
Farm location − 1.0216*** (0.1204) 1.3580*** (0.1262) − 0.3731*** (0.1191) 0.3816*** (0.1125) − 0.2779*** (0.0307) 0.4045*** (0.0356) − 0.1011*** (0.0314) 0.1202*** (0.0372)
Land size − 0.0029 (0.0222) 0.0224 (0.0246) 0.0052 (0.0184) 0.0246 (0.0194) − 0.0008 (0.0053) − 0.0052 (0.0062) 0.0018 (0.0055) 0.0079 (0.0065)
AIV intensification 0.0117 (0.1720) − 0.1581 (0.1633) − 0.0608 (0.1724) 0.1468 (0.1538) 0.0055 (0.0434) − 0.0562 (0.0502) − 0.0121 (0.0444) 0.0506 (0.0526)
Fertile soil 0.2603*** (0.0926) 0.0132 (0.0821) − 0.0484 (0.0885) − 0.1006 (0.0791) 0.0608*** (0.0225) 0.0020 (0.0261) − 0.0141 (0.0230) − 0.0341 (0.0273)
Distance to watering point − 0.0126 (0.0346) − 0.0069 (0.0174) − 0.0041 (0.0206) − 0.0612 (0.0543) − 0.0017 (0.0051) − 0.0026 (0.0059) − 0.0014 (0.0052) − 0.0103* (0.0062)
Distance to market − 0.0083 (0.0177) 0.0289* (0.0164) 0.0039 (0.0177) 0.0107 (0.0159) − 0.0023 (0.0044) 0.0088* (0.0051) 0.0013 (0.0045) 0.0035 (0.0054)
Type of irrigation system 0.4205*** (0.1211) 0.2688** (0.1317) − 0.0732 (0.1274) 0.4670*** (0.1160) 0.1327*** (0.0333) 0.0625 (0.0385) − 0.0171 (0.0340) 0.1634*** (0.0403)
TLU 0.1167 (0.0769) 0.1216* (0.0719) 0.1883** (0.0768) 0.0720 (0.0690) 0.0271 (0.0194) 0.0352 (0.0224) 0.0474** (0.0200) 0.0250 (0.0235)
Number of farm enterprises 0.0811*** (0.0208) 0.0075 (0.0195) 0.0120 (0.0210) 0.0393** (0.0189) 0.0803*** (0.0211) 0.0024 (0.0061) 0.0021 (0.0054) 0.0135** (0.0064)
Off-farm income − 0.1186 (0.1029) − 0.1224 (0.0981) 0.1453 (0.0981) 0.1036 (0.0913) − 0.0312 (0.0259) − 0.0345 (0.0300) 0.0407 (0.0265) 0.0324 (0.0314)
Access to information − 0.2531** (0.0999) 0.0913 (0.0901) 0.1394* (0.0942) 0.3440*** (0.0843) − 0.0610*** (0.0243) 0.0312 (0.0281) 0.0387 (0.0248) 0.1173*** (0.0295)
Access to warning on shocks − 0.0503 (0.1233) 0.0606 (0.1069) 0.0482 (0.1165) 0.3039*** (0.1028) − 0.0067 (0.0298) 0.0194 (0.0223) 0.0168 (0.0304) 0.1072*** (0.0361)
Contract farming 0.0932 (0.1629) 0.0558 (0.1496) 0.2045 (0.1527) 0.3189** (0.1417) 0.0237 (0.0411) 0.0406 (0.0476) 0.0584 (0.0421) 0.1117*** (0.0499)
Certification 0.0578 (0.0997) 0.3972*** (0.0877) 0.1591* (0.0944) 0.4392*** (0.0844) 0.0157 (0.0247) 0.1338*** (0.0286) 0.0449* (0.0253) 0.1601*** (0.0299)
Constant − 1.0986*** (0.3317) − 1.9073*** (0.3157) − 1.4601*** (0.3232) − 1.7972*** (0.2995) − 0.1911** (0.0817) − 0.0530*** (0.0946) − 0.0625 (0.0836) − 0.1145 (0.0991)
  1. Likelihood ratio test of: rho21 = rho31 = rho41 = rho32 = rho42 = rho43 = 0; χ2 (6) = 14.931 Prob>χ2 = 0.020
  2. Figures in parentheses are robust standard errors
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01