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Table 6 Results from double-bounded contingent valuation

From: Labeling food safety attributes: to inform or not to inform?

  Model I
standard model
Model II
with bid set dummies
Model III
anchoring and shift
Variable Estimate Estimate Estimate
Intercept − 0.405
(0.701)
0.081
(0.594)
− 0.363
(0.461)
Food safety label
 Safer Choice/Enhance 0.324
(0.209)
0.346**
(0.175)
0.328**
(0.137)
 Safer Choice/Vaccinated 0.155
(0.210)
0.183
(0.176)
0.174
(0.138)
Attitudes, knowledge, and opinion
 Personal health issues 0.329***
(0.109)
0.255***
(0.091)
0.296***
(0.071)
 Read labels 0.100
(0.120)
0.098
(0.101)
0.097
(0.079)
 Accept vaccines − 0.163**
(0.082)
− 0.132*
(0.069)
− 0.151***
(0.054)
Opinions about the government’s role
 Label vaccines 0.230**
(0.099)
0.233***
(0.084)
0.229***
(0.065)
 Mandate vaccines 0.062
(0.081)
0.028
(0.068)
0.049
(0.053)
 Ensure safety − 0.069
(0.090)
− 0.024
(0.076)
− 0.052
(0.059)
Demographics
 College − 0.431*
(0.228)
− 0.267
(0.192)
− 0.364**
(0.150)
 Income 0.003*
(0.002)
0.002
(0.001)
0.002**
(0.001)
 Children at home 0.093
(0.174)
0.091
(0.146)
0.098
(0.114)
Location
 Shopping district 0.454*
(0.242)
0.370*
(0.207)
0.389**
(0.159)
 Natural Foods store 0.895***
(0.272)
0.732***
(0.231)
0.802***
(0.178)
 Urban center 0.725***
(0.275)
0.719***
(0.233)
0.702***
(0.180)
Bid set dummies
 Bid set 1   − 0.841***
(0.176)
 
 Bid set 2 − 0.792***
(0.164)
Anchoring and shift effects
 Anchoring (γ)   0.711***
(0.151)
 Shift (δ) − 0.986***
(0.234)
 Log likelihood − 343.81 − 330.85 − 677.59
  1. Standard errors are given in parentheses
  2. Estimated coefficient is significant at the 10% level. At the 5% significance level. At the 1% significance level