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Table 3 Questionnaire items of uncertainty factors

From: The impact of environmental uncertainty on the performance of the rice supply chain in the Ayeyarwaddy Region, Myanmar

Uncertainty factors Concept Aspects of measurement Code Questions to the actors References
Supply Supply uncertainty is related to the unpredictability of the delivery of raw or packed materials in time, in the right amount or according to the right specifications. In this study, paddy is supplied from farmers to rice millers, and milled rice from millers to distributors and so on. Quantity SU1 Rice quantity from rice producers is unpredictable. van der Vorst 2000; Li 2002; Paulraj and Chen 2007; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Quality SU2 Rice quality from rice producers is unpredictable.
Time SU3 Rice producers’ delivery time is unpredictable.
Demand Demand uncertainty is related to uncertainty about customers’ requirements as a combination of unpredictability of demand and product variety (van der Vorst 2000). Both the international and domestic demand are considered. Quantity DU1 The volume of customer demand is difficult to predict. Li 2002; Paulraj and Chen 2007; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Quality DU2 Customers’ rice preference changes over the year.
Time DU3 The lead time of customer order is unpredictable.
Process Process uncertainty is related to the production system, including the uncertain ability to produce adequately a particular product or the uncertain availability of sufficient raw materials (van der Vorst 2000). In this study, the processor refers to any procedure carried out by supply chain members, such as producing, milling, quality control, and packing process. Quantity PU1 Yield of production or processing (e.g., producing, milling, packing) can vary. van der Vorst 2000; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Quality PU2 The quality of rice after processing (e.g., milled, stored) can change.
Time PU3 The throughput time of rice processing can vary.
Planning and control Planning and control uncertainty relates to incomplete information about production, inventory and customer demand (van der Vorst 2000). Quantity PCU1 Information about stock level of rice and rice production capacity is inaccurate. van der Vorst 2000; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Time PCU2 Information about stock level of rice and rice production capacity is not on time .
PCU3 Information concerning changes to customer orders cannot be distributed on time.
Competitor Competitor uncertainty refers to unpredictable actions by competitors in the competitive markets. This is related to reducing their product price, the time to market or the increasing product quality and variety (Li 2002). Uncertainty about competitors’ actions in the Myanmar rice industry is considered in both domestic and international markets. Action CU1 Competitors’ actions are unpredictable. Li 2002; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Domestic market CU2 Competition in the domestic market is intensifying.
International market CU3 Competition is intensified in different countries.
Government policy Government policy uncertainty includes the unpredictable set of laws, regulations, administrative procedures, and policies formally sanctioned by the government, which can affect an organizations’ profitability (Badri et al. 2000). Rice production GU1 Government policies in rice trading (e.g., FTA, tax) directly affecting your firm are unpredictable Javidan 1984; Badri et al. 2000; Bran and Bos 2005; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
Rice trading GU2 The grantee price from government regulation is unpredictable.
New government GU3 New government regulations are introduced unexpectedly.
Climate Climate uncertainty is referred to the unpredictable occurrence of serious weather events affecting agricultural lands. These phenomena can lead to rice supply shocks, delays in the time of arrival of paddy to market or transportation disruptions (Curz et al. 2007). Drought CLU1 Drought occurrences affecting firms are unpredictable over the year. Curz et al. 2007; Thongrattana and Jie 2009
CLU2 The duration of drought is unpredictable over the year.
Flooding CLU3 Flooding occurrences affecting firms are unpredictable over the year.
CLU4 The duration of flooding is unpredictable over the year.
  1. Source: Own compilation based on Thongrattana and Jie (2009)