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Table 3 Tobit and probit estimates of household participation in agriculture and food security (AME)

From: The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana

VariablesTobit for HFSAS score (Eq. 3)Probit for FSD (Eq. 4)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Full sampleTechimanTamaleFull sampleTechimanTamale
Participation in agriculture (ref. is UandR)      
Nonp− 1.631***− 0.594− 2.043***− 0.166***0.014− 0.253***
Uonly− 1.263**− 0.659− 1.201*− 0.136***− 0.010− 0.141**
Ronly− 1.850***− 0.853− 2.282***− 0.190***− 0.027− 0.263***
Female HH head− 0.712**− 1.802***− 0.042− 0.122***− 0.235***− 0.050
Age of HH head0.0200.052**0.0000.0010.005**− 0.002
Age of spouse− 0.016− 0.036− 0.017− 0.000− 0.0030.001
Married HH head0.2970.3980.055− 0.015− 0.000− 0.033
Years schooling: HH head0.004− 0.0190.010− 0.003− 0.005− 0.002
Years schooling: spouse0.210***0.461***0.063*0.023***0.046***0.009*
Years schooling: other adult0.3540.1660.628*0.029− 0.0010.080**
HH size0.0590.203**− 0.0520.0080.0160.001
Share of dependants0.421− 0.3311.137*0.046− 0.0300.133*
Received cash transfer0.0050.114− 0.2300.0170.049− 0.031
Received food transfer0.3240.3110.1590.0360.0400.009
No. of nonfarm income earners0.051− 0.1920.311**0.010− 0.0140.035*
Monthly per capita income0.011***0.009***0.014***0.001***0.001***0.001***
Livestock producer0.0540.219− 0.143− 0.0310.004− 0.087
Owns dwelling0.2820.0950.2180.049**0.0090.068**
Chronically sick HH head− 0.594***− 0.416− 0.616**− 0.076**− 0.066− 0.071
Chronically sick spouse− 0.611**− 0.764*− 0.395− 0.032− 0.0610.009
Chronically HH member− 0.313− 0.372− 0.237− 0.053− 0.062− 0.040
Indebted0.050− 0.773**1.508***− 0.016− 0.098**0.109*
Unemployed HH head− 1.521***− 1.976***− 1.039**− 0.126***− 0.169***− 0.089
Unemployed spouse− 0.936***− 1.335***− 0.496− 0.060− 0.129**− 0.000
Unemployed HH member− 0.504**− 0.282− 0.634**− 0.062*− 0.008− 0.101**
Techiman− 0.187  0.003  
Observations2004100899620041008996
Log-likelihood value− 4295− 2148− 2102− 1263− 619.7− 607.5
Pseudo R20.07630.08420.08730.12920.1520.158
  1. AME average marginal effect
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1