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Table 6 Ordered probit estimates of participation in agriculture and food security (Tamale)

From: The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana

Variables Average marginal effects
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Coef.SevereModerateMildSecure
Participation in agriculture (ref. is UandR)
Nonp− 0.609***0.1280.0690.018− 0.216
Uonly− 0.388**0.0730.0480.016− 0.137
Ronly− 0.612***0.1290.0700.018− 0.217
Female HH head− 0.0530.0140.0050.000− 0.019
Age of HH head0.000− 0.000− 0.000− 0.0000.000
Age of spouse− 0.0040.0010.0000.000− 0.001
Married HH head− 0.0320.0080.0030.000− 0.011
Years schooling: HH head0.004− 0.001− 0.000− 0.0000.002
Years schooling: spouse0.017− 0.004− 0.002− 0.0000.006
Years schooling: other adult0.177*− 0.045− 0.017− 0.0010.063
HH size− 0.0040.0010.0000.000− 0.002
Share of dependants0.217− 0.055− 0.020− 0.0010.077
Received cash transfer− 0.0370.0090.0030.000− 0.013
Received food transfer0.052− 0.013− 0.005− 0.0000.018
No. of nonfarm income earners0.092**− 0.023− 0.009− 0.0010.033
Monthly per capita income0.004***− 0.001− 0.000− 0.0000.001
Livestock producer− 0.1060.0270.0100.000− 0.037
Owns dwelling0.114− 0.029− 0.011− 0.0010.041
Chronically sick HH head− 0.1730.0460.015− 0.000− 0.061
Chronically sick spouse− 0.1390.0370.0120.000− 0.049
Chronically HH member− 0.0450.0120.0040.000− 0.016
Indebted0.365**− 0.082− 0.040− 0.0090.130
Unemployed HH head− 0.305*0.0850.023− 0.003− 0.106
Unemployed spouse− 0.0140.0040.0010.000− 0.005
Unemployed HH member− 0.304***0.0830.025− 0.001− 0.107
μ (1)− 1.013***    
μ (2)− 0.362    
μ (3)0.015    
Observations996    
Log–likelihood value− 1173    
Pseudo R20.109    
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1