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Table 7 Endogeneity corrected estimates of household participation in agriculture and FS (AME)

From: The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana

Variables Tobit for HFSAS score (Eq. 3) Probit for FSD (Eq. 4)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Overall Techiman Tamale Full sample Techiman Tamale
Participation in agriculture (ref. is UandR)
Nonp − 1.474** − 0.756 − 1.635* − 0.177*** − 0.015 − 0.257***
Uonly − 1.135** − 0.675 − 0.742* − 0.136** − 0.011 − 0.121**
Ronly − 1.756*** − 0.830 − 2.058*** − 0.191*** − 0.028 − 0.258***
Female HH head − 1.732 − 2.282*** 0.351 − 0.258 − 0.300*** − 0.030
Age of HH head − 0.023 0.044 0.001 − 0.003 0.005 − 0.002
Age of spouse 0.003 − 0.034 − 0.007 0.002 − 0.002 0.002
Married HH head − 0.043 0.458 0.088 − 0.043 0.025 − 0.016
Years schooling: HH head − 0.116 − 0.041 0.014 − 0.015 − 0.006 − 0.001
Years schooling: spouse 0.382* 0.517*** 0.120 0.043 0.053*** 0.016
Years schooling: adult 0.157 0.461 0.655 0.013 0.038 0.085
HH size − 0.037 0.189* − 0.140* − 0.004 0.012 − 0.009
Share of dependants 1.681 0.513 1.904** 0.172 0.036 0.205**
Received cash transfer − 0.643 − 0.019 − 0.401 − 0.056 0.025 − 0.077
Received food transfer 0.663 0.366 − 0.015 0.072 0.050 − 0.005
No. of nonfarm income earners 0.293 − 0.273 0.373 0.036 − 0.026 0.044
Monthly per capita income 0.009** 0.009*** 0.014*** 0.001 0.001*** 0.001***
Livestock producer − 0.743 0.252 − 0.073 − 0.105 0.018 − 0.061
Owns dwelling − 0.164 − 0.449 0.261 0.003 − 0.048 0.071*
Chronically sick HH head − 0.359 − 0.432 − 0.569 − 0.057 − 0.069 − 0.075
Chronically sick spouse − 0.535* − 0.879** − 0.354 − 0.029 − 0.080 0.009
Chronically HH member − 0.392 − 0.075 − 0.102 − 0.063* − 0.019 − 0.021
Indebted − 0.818 − 0.891** 1.743 − 0.111 − 0.100 0.122
Unemployed HH head − 1.568*** − 2.234 − 1.093* − 0.133*** − 0.416 − 0.093
Unemployed spouse − 1.474* − 1.931 − 0.445 − 0.142 − 0.416 0.002
Unemployed HH member 0.881 0.055 − 0.329 0.077 0.011 − 0.070
Techiman 0.119    0.034   
Correction terms
 IMR1 0.123 0.223 − 0.170 0.011 0.025 − 0.019
 IMR2 − 0.518 − 0.210 0.003 − 0.056 − 0.023 − 0.004
 IMR3 0.376 − 0.015 0.113 0.039 − 0.006 0.012
Joint F-stat for IMRs 0.630 0.261 1.994 0.615 0.310 1.784
P-value of F-test 0.595 0.854 0.113 0.605 0.818 0.149
Observations 2004 1008 996 2004 1008 996
Log-likelihood value − 4295 − 2148 − 2102 − 1263 − 619.7 − 607.5
Pseudo R2 0.081 0.087 0.089 0.128 0.161 0.163
  1. AME average marginal effect
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1