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Table 5 Basic G-MNL model results of attributes’ choice model

From: Consumers’ preference and willingness to pay for enriched snack product traits in Shashamane and Hawassa cities, Ethiopia

 Full G-MNLG-MNL-II (γ=0)G-MNL-I (γ=1)G-MNL (τ = 1)
βSt. err.βSt. errβSt. err.βSt. err.
Taste parameters in utility functions
Sorghum-chickpea.584***.071.493***.078.595***.085.796***.073
Maize-chickpea− .208**.086− .147.096− .197**.087− .397***.079
Shape.205***.042.328***.048.226***.047.213***.045
Flavor.681***.038.680***.048.751***.056.958***.050
Labeling1.216***.0491.024***.0481.227***.0721.316***.066
Price− .260***.014− .301***.015− .283***.016− .307***.022
Constant− 4.76***.123− 5.12***.151− 4.78***.141− 4.97***.149
Heterogeneity in mean (standard deviation)
Sorghum-chickpea.083.108.051.077.033.089.035.058
Maize-chickpea.005.159.057.118.057.060.158**.065
Shape.123***.042.111.319.161**.066.206***.059
Flavor.236***.027.415***.069.343***.047.403***.050
Labeling.345***.038.701***.050.432***.071.891***.061
Price.055***.018.027***.010.013.039.008.017
Tau (τ).735***.034.684***.082.708***.0551.0Fixed
Gamma (γ)1.487***.1460.0Fixed1.0Fixed.098.071
Sigma (i).976.765.979.707.978.734.9571.089
N8400 8400 8400 8400 
LL function− 5124.27 − 5065.44 − 5111.37 − 5078.14 
McFadden Pseudo-R2.444 .451 .446 .449 
AIC/N1.224 1.209 1.220 1.212 
  1. The asterisk symbols ***, **, and * imply the significance at 1%, 5%, and 10% level, respectively