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Table 6 Heterogeneity in mean taste parameter models

From: Consumers’ preference and willingness to pay for enriched snack product traits in Shashamane and Hawassa cities, Ethiopia

 Full G-MNLG-MNL-II (γ=0)G-MNL-I (γ=1)G-MNL (τ = 1)
βSt. errβSt. errβSt. errβSt. err
Taste parameters
Sorghum-chickpea.477***.110.439***.105.466***.106.667***.115
Maize-chickpea.086.122.114.120.092.102− .262**.111
Shape.372***.044.367***.043.259***.042.075**.038
Flavor.473***.060.474***.056.483***.065.677***.100
Labeling1.16***.0841.139***.0771.192***.1001.244***.107
Price− .378***.027− .379***.026− .352***.027− .188***.020
Constant− 5.16***.136− 5.12***.139− 5.05***.147− 5.01***.155
Observed heterogeneities
S-CH*elementary− .464***.090− .456***.089− .373***.107− .179*.092
S-CH*high school− .186**.079− .178**.076− .164**.081− .047.070
S-CH*diploma− .666***.101− .631***.096− .684***.118− .136*.078
M-CH*family size− .031.031− .040.030− .026.024− .070**.031
M-CH: elementary.464***.125.464***.122.360***.113.163.112
Shape*write & read.493***.121.506***.111.556***.120.173**.083
Shape*elementary.337***.056.346***.055.316***.061.167***.054
Flavor*sex− .218***.045− .217***.043− .238***.050.016.059
Flavor*family size− .018.013− .016.013− .004− .004− .041**.017
Flavor*Write & read− .354***.077− .340***.071− .266***.096− .009.077
Flavor*high school.184***.052.186***.048.165***.056.101.062
Flavor*degree.539***.089.480***.077.531***.111.264***.088
Labeling*sex− .081.054− .089*.051− .048.068.064.073
Labeling*family size− .055***.018− .046***.017− .073***.020− .071***.025
Labeling*high school− .142*.073− .157**.069− .167*.088− .148*.089
Labeling*diploma− .942***.083− .909***.074− 1.08***.146− .098.110
Labeling*degree.244**.113.221**.101.193.152.011.116
Price*family size.018***.005.019***.005.022***.006− .011**.005
Price*write & read− .178***.054− .161***.051− .294***.077− .036.033
Price*high school.031.025.038.023.042*.021.691.018
Price*Tec. college− .132***.039− .129***.036− .017.037.063**.030
Price*diploma− .049.029− .053**.026− .101***.036− .046.035
Heterogeneity in mean (standard deviation)
Sorghum-chickpea.129.120.040.105.089.083.033.099
Maize-chickpea.039.202.048.156.000.060.025.056
Shape.127**.063.130**.055.128**.057.156***.050
Flavor.331***.029.321***.028.293***.039.351***.054
Labeling.518***.037.510***.037.536***.051.455***.114
Price.084***.020.076***.019.078***.020.031**.012
Tau (τ).564***.035.558***.033.553***.0301.0Fixed
Gamma (γ).621***.1190.0Fixed1.0Fixed.565***.200
Sigma (i).984*.573.985*.566.985*.561.9571.089
N8400 8400 8400 8400 
LL function− 5236.95 − 5243.05 − 5229.90 − 5139.53 
McFadden pseudo-R2.432 .431 .433 .443 
AIC/N1.256 1.258 1.255 1.233 
  1. The asterisk symbols ***, **, and * imply the significance at 1%, 5%, and 10% level, respectively
  2. S-CH sorghum-chickpea, M-CH maize-chickpea