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Table 4 Production costs of atta made from white cowpeas

From: Economic potentials of artisanal food processing microenterprises in West Africa: case of “atta” production in Cotonou (Benin)

Cost items Average cost per kilogram of processed cowpeas* (FCFA) Percentage
Cowpeas (raw material) 589.8 (99.8) 39.1
Ingredients 412.5 (238.7) 23.0
Transport 57.1 (56.5) 3.0
Water 20.2 (19.3) 1.1
Fuel 108 (51.5) 6.3
Packaging 43.7 (20.6) 2.6
Milling 195.4 (26.3) 12.5
Rent 40.1 (105.3) 2.6
Intermediate inputs 1466.8 (372.1) 90.4
Occasionally hired labor 15 (47.7) 1.8
Family labor 144.8 (115.3) 7.5
Depreciation 7.3 (8.8) 0.4
Total cost 1633.9 (434.2) 100.0
Total cost without family labor 1369.2 -
  1. Source: Survey results, November to December 2017
  2. *This is the arithmetic mean of the unit cost variable “cost per week/quantity of cowpea processed in a week,” for the sample of 27 craftswomen. Standard deviations are in parentheses. The average quantity of cowpeas processed in a week by each woman was 10.83 kg, and the average cost per week was 16,029.7 FCFA