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Table 4 Endogenous switching for FSF adoption and milking cows ownership

From: Does it pay to switch from free grazing to stall feeding? Impact of stall feeding practice on household welfare in Tigrai Ethiopia

Variables (FSF = 1) (FSF = 0) (FSF = 1/0)
Milking cow Milking cow Selection
Education status (literate=1) − 0.00974 (0.255) − 0.0382 (0.198) − 0.00268 (0.133)
Household head age (year) − 0.0112 (0.00823) − 0.00392 (0.00605) − 0.00279 (0.00442)
Household head sex (male=1) 0.0423 (0.325) 0.122 (0.212) 0.345** (0.175)
Family size (number) − 0.0457 (0.0537) − 0.0543 (0.0421) 0.0640** (0.0285)
Farm size (ha) 0.360* (0.202) 0.200 (0.126) − 0.0110 (0.0523)
Farm income (ETB) − 9.62e-06 (1.00e-05) 1.31e-05** (5.54e-06) − 4.91e-06 (3.75e-06)
Off farm income (ETB) − 1.11e-06 (2.21e-06) 5.71e-06 (6.53e-06) 3.61e-06** (1.69e-06)
Access to formal credit (yes = 1) − 0.329 (0.259) − 0.464** (0.210) − 0.00167 (0.142)
Information access (TV, radio, and mobile = 1) − 0.393 (0.297) − 0.612** (0.279) 0.528*** (0.155)
Herd size (TLU) 0.406*** (0.0898) 0.695*** (0.111) − 0.0355 (0.0248)
Forage use (yes = 1) 0.0865 (0.273) − 0.0842 (0.248) 0.359** (0.154)
Feed supplementary expense (ETB) 0.000396 (0.000291) − 0.000115 (0.000108) 2.52e-05 (9.99e-05)
Veterinary expense (ETB) − 0.00182*** (0.000683) − 0.000205 (0.000947) − 0.000835 (0.000706)
Location of household (highland = 1) − 0.545 (0.413) − 0.963** (0.477) − 0.963*** (0.344)
Family labor (h) − 0.000733 (0.00195) − 0.00256 (0.00184) 0.00149 (0.000949)
Hired labor (h) 0.394 (0.315) − 0.221 (0.186) − 0.0872 (0.139)
Animal shock experience (yes = 1) 0.215 (0.278) − 0.113 (0.244) 0.421*** (0.150)
Distance to market (walking minutes) 0.00104 (0.00246) 0.00233 (0.00154) 2.01e-05 (0.00110)
Distance to nearest road (walking minutes) − 0.00403 (0.00495) 0.00226 (0.00244) − 0.00297* (0.00179)
Exposure of SF (year)    0.351*** (0.0472)
Constant − 0.146 (1251) − 1.504*** (503.9) − 2.125*** (0.416)
rho1, rho0 0.475 (0.331) − 0.488 (0.227)**  
LR test of indep. eqns (PV   0.1354  
Observations 518 518 518
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability level, respectively