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Table 7 Endogenous switching for FSF adoption and input use

From: Does it pay to switch from free grazing to stall feeding? Impact of stall feeding practice on household welfare in Tigrai Ethiopia

Variables (SSF = 1) (SSF = 0) (SSF = 1/0)
Propensity hire labor Propensity hire labor Selection
Farm income (ETB) − 1.22e-06 (3.81e-06) 9.36e-06 (7.53e-06) 2.28e-06 (4.03e-06)
Off farm income (ETB) − 6.65e-06* (3.94e-06) − 7.96e-06 (8.76e-06) 3.62e-06* (2.11e-06)
Area of cultivated land (ha) 6.29e-05 (0.000191) − 0.000420 (0.000260) − 0.000272** (0.000130)
Farm tool value (ETB) − 0.000144** (6.68e-05) − 1.21e-06 (8.31e-05) 4.25e-05 (4.91e-05)
Number of oxen 0.235*** (0.0625) 0.170* (0.0885) − 0.0358 (0.0490)
Total farm size (ha) − 0.0527 (0.0644) − 0.0117 (0.143) 0.0381 (0.0600)
Family labor (h) 0.00430** (0.00170) − 0.00484* (0.00288) 0.00448*** (0.00121)
Family size (number) 0.0545 (0.0489) − 0.0389 (0.0501) 0.0223 (0.0307)
Household head age (year) − 0.00149 (0.0432) 0.0169 (0.0511) − 0.0660** (0.0312)
Household head age square (year) 9.79e-05 (0.000383) − 9.17e-05 (0.000402) 0.000402 (0.000265)
Total herd size in TLU 0.00798 (0.0513) 0.209*** (0.0616) − 0.0690** (0.0342)
Number of cows 0.231** (0.112) − 0.194 (0.135) 0.222*** (0.0711)
Household head sex (male = 1) 0.165 (0.294) 0.340 (0.255) 0.253 (0.172)
Household head education (literate = 1) − 0.0714 (0.186) − 0.466* (0.254) 0.294** (0.136)
Access to formal credit (yes = 1) − 0.286 (0.246) − 0.374 (0.278) 0.187 (0.152)
Distance to free grazing land (walking minute) − 0.00240 (0.00287) 0.00497 (0.00666) 0.0145*** (0.00225)
Location of household (highland = 1) − 0.543 (0.471) 0.228 (0.435) − 0.372 (0.333)
Province 1 (Southern) 1.032*** (0.340) 1.898*** (0.503) − 0.733*** (0.237)
Province 2 (Eastern) 0.627* (0.356) 0.200 (0.588) − 0.720** (0.297)
Province 3 (Central) − 1.201** (0.524) − 0.378 (0.756) − 0.0213 (0.299)
Province 4 (North west) 1.264*** (0.372) 0.736 (0.635) − 0.713*** (0.245)
Animal shock experience (yes = 1)    0.605*** (0.181)
Exposure of SF (years)    0.264*** (0.0701)
Constant − 2.190* (1.224) − 1.905 (2.185) 0.635 (1.006)
rho1, rho0 − 0.237 (0.416) 0.0309 (0.673)  
LR test of indep. eqns (PV   0.8523  
Observations 518 518 518
  1. P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability level, respectively