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Table 8 Impact of SF on economic, ecological, and social welfare indicators

From: Does it pay to switch from free grazing to stall feeding? Impact of stall feeding practice on household welfare in Tigrai Ethiopia

Outcome indicator Decision on FSFa Treatment effect Decision on SSFb Treatment effect
Adopt Not-adopt Adopt Not-adopt
Milk production (L) Participants 2.4661 2.0198 0.4462*** 1.9045 − 0.1487 2.0533**
Non-participants 4.4336 2.1350 2.2986*** 2.2169 1.2217 0.9952***
Milk yield Participants 1.6993 1.4064 0.2928*** 1.7419 − 0.0210 1.7630***
Non-participants 2.1696 1.4592 0.7104*** 0.2884 1.3935 − 1.1051***
Lactation in months Participants 8.4598 8.1712 0.2886*** 8.3298 8.7293 − 0.3995***
Non-participants 8.6022 7.6087 0.9935*** 8.3292 7.2554 1.0737***
Milk and meat consumption Participants 1855.6 1587.9 267.7*** 1807.8 1254.5 553.2***
Non-participants 2777.4 1548.9 1228.4*** 2141.8 1470.3 671.5***
Manure use in KG Participants 1061.1 767.14 294.01*** 1338.6 1080.5 258.08***
Non-participants 905.90 939.90 − 34.005 − 1421.3 1022.7 − 2444.***
Herd size in TLU Participants 3.9527 5.1053 − 1.1525*** 4.2433 4.5725 − 0.3292***
Non-participants 4.7066 4.0789 0.6277*** 4.5145 3.7701 0.7444****
Number of trees planted Participants 37.434 25.965 11.468*** 124.4 17.72 − 9.636***
Non-participants 48.093 11.557 36.536*** − 181.4 13.64 30.156***
Conservation structure length Participants 121.24 91.955 29.287** 114.30 100.79 13.504
Non-participants 224.37 90.382 133.98*** 140.18 85.550 54.635***
Milking cows Participants ATT   0.2316**    0.2166***
Non-participants ATU   − 0.0433***    0.1618***
Plant (1/0) Participants ATT   0.1939***    0.0819***
Non-participants ATU   0.0063    0.1256***
Hired labor (1/0) Participants ATT   − 0.2923***    0.0577***
Non-participants ATU   0.3384***    0.1522***
Purchase of animal feed (1/0) Participants ATT   − 0.3122***    − 0.3805***
Non-participants ATU   − 0.0201*    0.1499***
Animal sale (1/0) Participants ATT   0.2945***    0.1604***
Non-participants ATU   0.4782***    0.4061***
Animal shock(1/0) Participants ATT   − 0.1990***    − 0.1047***
Non-participants ATU   0.2361***    0.3274***
  1. NB: P values are for slopes: ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, and *P < 0.10 = significant at 1%, 5%, and 10% probability level, respectively
  2. aFSF full year stall feeding adoption
  3. bSSF seasonal stall feeding adoption