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Table 3 Model estimation: beta coefficients and odds ratio for mandatory label disclosure

From: Label information and consumer behaviour: evidence on drinking milk sector

  (Model 1) (Model 2) (Model 3)
Variables 100% Italian Nutritional information Stabilisation treatment
β Odds ratio β Odds ratio β Odds ratio
Loyalty 0.29 [0.30] 1.34 [0.40] − 0.05 [0.22] 0.95 [0.21] 0.10 [0.23] 1.10 [0.25]
Proximity to the store − 0.04 [0.23] 0.96 [0.22] 0.54** [0.22] 1.72** [0.38] 0.53** [0.21] 1.70** [0.35]
Price − 0.09 [0.25] 0.91 [0.22] 0.05 [0.22] 1.05 [0.23] − 0.26 [0.22] 0.77 [0.17]
Cattle welfare − 0.07 [0.29] 0.93 [0.27] 0.76*** [0.24] 2.13***[0.52] 0.37 [0.24] 1.45 [0.35]
Packaging 0.58** [0.29] 1.79** [0.52] 0.58** [0.30] 1.79** [0.53] 0.14 [0.28] 1.15 [0.32]
Food safety 1.42*** [0.32] 4.12*** [1.32] 0.57* [0.33] 1.76* [0.58] 1.09*** [0.32] 2.97*** [0.95]
Freshness 1.16*** [0.37] 3.20*** [1.20] − 0.21 [0.57] 0.81 [0.46] 0.18 [0.47] 1.19 [0.56]
Taste 0.40 [0.40] 1.49 [0.60] 2.34*** [0.48] 10.39*** [4.94] − 0.06 [0.48] 0.94 [0.45]
Habits—purchase of milk 0.69*** [0.26] 2.00*** [0.52] 0.07 [0.21] 1.07 [0.22] 0.52** [0.21] 1.68** [0.35]
habits—purchase of dairy products 0.28 [0.24] 1.32 [0.31] − 0.27 [0.21] 0.76 [0.16] − 0.39* [0.22] 0.68* [0.15]
Responsible of food expenses 0.37 [0.29] 1.45 [0.42] 0.98*** [0.32] 2.66*** [0.85] 1.00*** [0.30] 2.71*** [0.82]
Food-related disease − 0.34 [0.34] 0.71 [0.24] 0.13 [0.31] 1.14 [0.35] − 0.04 [0.29] 0.96 [0.27]
Children 0.00 [0.35] 1.00 [0.35] 0.67** [0.28] 1.96** [0.54] − 0.10 [0.26] 0.90 [0.23]
Farm ownership − 0.27 [0.76] 0.76 [0.58] − 1.21** [0.52] 0.30** [0.16] − 1.02 [0.65] 0.36 [0.23]
Organic concern 0.61** [0.26] 1.84** [0.47] 0.99*** [0.25] 2.69*** [0.67] 0.01 [0.22] 1.01 [0.22]
SOC—woman 0.06 [0.29] 1.07 [0.31] − 0.45** [0.22] 0.64** [0.14] − 0.35 [0.21] 0.70 [0.15]
SOC—age: 31–45 0.54* [0.31] 1.71* [0.53] − 0.15 [0.30] 0.86 [0.26] − 0.19 [0.26] 0.82 [0.22]
SOC—age: > 46 1.67*** [0.34] 5.30*** [1.83] 0.34 [0.31] 1.41 [0.44] 0.50 [0.34] 1.66 [0.56]
SOC—household size: 2 members − 0.76* [0.43] 0.47* [0.20] 0.38 [0.44] 1.47 [0.64] 0.17 [0.37] 1.18 [0.43]
SOC—household size: 3 members − 0.53 [0.46] 0.59 [0.27] − 0.45 [0.46] 0.64 [0.29] 0.32 [0.39] 1.38 [0.54]
SOC—household size: 4 members − 0.65 [0.49] 0.52 [0.25] 0.58 [0.46] 1.79 [0.82] 0.20 [0.38] 1.22 [0.47]
SOC—household size: > 4 members − 1.27** [0.59] 0.28** [0.17] − 0.42 [0.50] 0.66 [0.33] − 0.05 [0.48] 0.96 [0.46]
SOC—education: high school − 1.26** [0.49] 0.28** [0.14] − 1.22* [0.70] 0.30* [0.21] − 0.46 [0.34] 0.63 [0.22]
SOC—education: degree − 1.22** [0.50] 0.29** [0.15] − 1.18* [0.69] 0.31* [0.21] − 0.69** [0.34] 0.50** [0.17]
SOC—household income: from 36,151.98 to 70,000.00€ 0.02 [0.23] 1.01 [0.24] − 0.81*** [0.24] 0.45*** [0.11] − 0.21 [0.21] 0.81 [0.18]
SOC—household income: from 70,000.00 to 100,000.00€ − 0.29 [0.36] 0.75 [0.27] − 0.57** [0.28] 0.56** [0.16] − 0.08 [0.33] 0.92 [0.30]
Cut 1 − 2.15 [0.74] − 1.26 [0.98] − 2.87 [0.73]
Cut 2 − 1.38 [0.71] − 0.21 [0.96] − 2.14 [0.69]
Cut 3 − 0.94[0.74] 0.99 [0.97] − 1.05 [0.66]
Cut 4 0.13 [0.72] 2.38 [1.00] 0.05 [0.66]
Cut 5 1.43 [0.71] 3.36 [1.01] 1.02 [0.66]
Cut 6 2.71 [0.72] 4.94 [1.03] 2.73 [0.67]
Obs 424 426 426
Pseudo R2 0.1568 0.1516 0.0723
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10. There are robust standard errors in brackets