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Table 4 Frame matrix of the five frames used in the European Commission last two Communications on CAP reform (2010, 2017)—new societal concerns

From: Framing agricultural policy through the EC’s strategies on CAP reforms (1992–2017)

Dominant frames Key concept Key words Examples
Societal concernsa Prioritising environment, nature, food safety and quality, animal welfare, human and animal health “structural diversity”, “green growth”, “greening”, public goods”, “promote environmental care and climate action”, “food security, safety, quality and sustainability”,
“benefits for society” and “stronger focus on the provision of public goods”, “’One Health’” concept”,
“sustainable use of pesticides”, “critical health issue”
“European citizens should continue to have access to safe, high quality, affordable, nutritious and diverse food… impact on their health, the environment and the climate… Similarly, the CAP needs to support … the root causes of migration towards the EU.”
Farmers’ economicb Improving farm income,
conditions of small farmers, generational renewal, fair farm income
“viable food production”, “support to active farmers”, “local employment”, “fair farm income”, “resilient agriculture”, “farmer’s position in value chain”, “innovation”, “risk management” “Objective 1: to contribute to farm income and limit farm income variability…”
“A fair income support to help farmers to make a living.”
Policy mechanismb Strategic plan prepared by MS, new environmental design of policy “overall architecture”, “implementation of policy”, “policy instruments”, “strategic plan”, “a new delivery model of the future CAP” “Member States will have the flexibility to formulate strategic plans allowing for addressing climate and environmental needs at local level.”
Foreign tradec Global and internal competitiveness, market orientation “maintain international trade”, “maintaining the market-orientation”, “strengthen competitiveness” “Maintaining the market-orientation of the EU agri-food sector and the compatibility of CAP measures with international trade law will also allow the EU to retain its leading role in international bodies, promoting open trade and advocating strict disciplines on trade-distorting forms of support.”
Budgetaryc Justification of budget “more accountable to needs and expectation of EU citizens”, “benefits for society”, “focus on public goods”  
  1. aVery important
  2. bImportant
  3. cLess important