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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of key variables used in the regressions (N=4042)

From: Food consumption patterns, nutrient adequacy, and the food systems in Nigeria

  Country (n=4042) Rural (n=2721) Urban (n=1321) Diff.=urban−rural (t-test)
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Diff. t-stat.
Household head is male (1/0)a 0.81 0.39 0.83 0.37 0.77 0.42 −0.06 −4.47**
Age of household head in years 52.4 14.2 52.4 14.3 52.4 14.1 −0.06 −0.13
Household head attained post-primary education (1/0) 0.38 0.48 0.29 0.45 0.56 0.50 0.27 16.9**
Household size in adult female equivalent 5.53 3.03 5.82 3.08 4.91 2.82 −0.91 −9.07**
Dependency ratio (share of children <14 and adults>64) 0.42 0.25 0.44 0.24 0.39 0.26 −0.04 −5.21**
Household expenditure quintile         
 _1 (bottom 20%) (1/0) 0.21 0.41 0.29 0.46 0.04 0.19 −0.25 −19.49**
 _2 (1/0) 0.21 0.41 0.25 0.43 0.14 0.34 −0.11 −7.98**
 _3 (1/0) 0.20 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.22 0.41 0.02 1.47
 _4 (1/0) 0.20 0.40 0.16 0.37 0.28 0.45 0.12 9.12**
 _5 (top 20%) (1/0) 0.18 0.38 0.10 0.31 0.33 0.47 0.22 18.06**
Expenditure on MAH over food at home 0.43 1.61 0.35 1.00 0.60 2.41 0.25 4.73**
Head own mobile phone (1/0) 0.73 0.44 0.65 0.48 0.90 0.30 0.24 17.22**
HH is connected to public electricity system (1/0) 0.54 0.50 0.40 0.49 0.84 0.37 0.44 28.98**
HH has improved water source (1/0) 0.52 0.50 0.46 0.50 0.66 0.48 0.19 12.12**
Improved sanitation (toilet facility), community (%) 0.59 0.35 0.49 0.34 0.81 0.27 0.32 0.30**
Health center/hospital in the community (1/0) 0.73 0.44 0.69 0.46 0.81 0.39 0.12 8.15**
HH has irrigated plot (1/0) 0.01 0.12 0.02 0.13 0.01 0.09 −0.01 −2.17**
HH distance to nearest large weekly market (km) 67.76 43.92 71.30 39.50 60.45 51.12 −10.85 −7.41**
HH distance in (km) to nearest population center with +20,000 (km) 23.65 20.07 29.08 20.26 12.47 14.19 −16.60 −26.76**
Fraction of land under agriculture within 1km buffer 27.78 27.00 33.66 27.37 15.68 21.69 −17.98 −20.90**
Agroecological zones         
 Tropic-warm/semiarid (1/0) 0.30 0.46 0.37 0.48 0.16 0.37 −0.20 −13.79**
 Tropic-warm/subhumid (1/0) 0.57 0.49 0.51 0.50 0.71 0.45 0.20 12.38**
 Tropic-warm/humid (1/0) 0.12 0.32 0.12 0.32 0.12 0.33 0.01 0.70
 Tropic-cool/sub-humid (1/0) 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.09 −0.00 −0.74
Month of interview         
 February (1/0) 0.28 0.45 0.25 0.43 0.34 0.47 0.08 5.74**
 March (1/0) 0.71 0.45 0.74 0.44 0.64 0.48 −0.09 −6.41**
 April (1/0) 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.10 0.02 0.15 0.01 2.84*
  1. a(1/0) denotes dummy variable and s.d. denotes standard deviation
  2. **p<0.01, *p<0.05