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Table 3 Annual cost components (Gh₵) per household

From: Economic benefits of livestock management in Ghana

Components Agro ecological zone
Guinea savannah Sudan savannah
External cost (Ghana cedis) of managing small ruminants per household per year
 Veterinary service 22.10a 23.08a
 Medicine/drugs 12.73a 9.25a
 Fencing/housing 10.37a 14.09a
 Dipping 2.98a 2.22a
 Feed supplements 7.64a 4.93a
Total 55.80a 53.56a
Hidden cost (Ghana cedis) of small ruminant per household per year
  Lambs 0–12 months 53.00a 33.27a
  Ewes 69.16a 102.73a
  Rams 83.68a 127.29a
  Kids 0–12 months 27.53a 23.29a
  Does 51.90a 75.33b
  Bucks 65.45a 65.45a
Total 254.38a 309.02a
Overall production costs   
  1. Note: Within rows, means (least square mean values) of components with different superscripts are significantly different at P < 0.05 on a t-test of means. Exchange rate: US$1 was equivalent to Gh₵1.9