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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of variables

From: Nonfarm activity and market participation by farmers in Ghana

Variable NFE participants (n = 1,616) NFE non-participants (n = 3,299) Overall (n = 4,915)
Meana S.D Mean S.D Mean S.D Diff
Nonfarm engagement 0.329 0.470  
Sold crop 0.603 0.489 0.615 0.487 0.611 0.488 − 0.002
Age of household head 47.98 14.05 48.12 16.31 48.08 15.61 − 0.371
Average age of household 34.16 8.783 33.45 12.14 33.68 11.17 0.451*
Sex of household head 0.827 0.378 0.808 0.394 0.814 0.389 0.026***
Years of education of head 5.607 4.454 4.005 4.217 4.526 4.360 1.100***
Area of residence 0.968 0.175 0.976 0.153 0.974 0.160 − 0.011**
Farm size in hectares 1.609 2.742 2.046 14.40 1.904 11.94 − 0.159
Price/kg 4.322 3.777 4.162 3.754 4.214 3.762 0.855***
Extension office in community 0.183 0.387 0.155 0.362 0.164 0.370 0.002
Agricultural wage 8.860 4.475 8.639 5.014 8.711 4.846 0.086
Adult equivalent scale 4.435 2.329 3.651 2.214 3.906 2.281 0.857***
Market in community 0.280 0.449 0.296 0.456 0.290 0.454 − 0.002
Navigable road to community 0.469 0.499 0.790 0.408 0.685 0.464 − 0.351***
Public transport availability 0.606 0.489 0.512 0.500 0.543 0.498 0.088***
Ownership of radio 0.621 0.485 0.633 0.482 0.629 0.483 0.007
Bank in community 0.079 0.269 0.046 0.209 0.056 0.231 0.024***
Ease of finding jobs 0.387 0.487 0.343 0.475 0.357 0.479 0.044***
People temporary leave 0.782 0.413 0.758 0.428 0.766 0.423 0.024**
  1. aMeans/averages for dummy variables are proportions/percentages for the ‘1’ groups for the various variables; sampling weight is used; Diff. represents the mean difference; *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01