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Table 3 Determinants of nonfarm activity and sale of crops

From: Nonfarm activity and market participation by farmers in Ghana

Variable NFE Sale of crop
Participants Non-participants
Basic household characteristics    
Age of household head − 0.003** − 0.002 − 0.006***
Average age of household 0.005*** 0.001 − 0.002
Sex of household head − 0.017 − 0.219* 0.237***
Years of education of head 0.039*** 0.004 − 0.027***
Area of residence − 0.260** 0.321 0.200
Region (base: Upper West)    
 Western − 0.211* 0.503** 0.770***
 Central 0.366 5.031*** 0.362
 Greater Accra 0.196* 0.563*** 0.386***
 Volta 0.444*** 0.608*** 0.259**
 Eastern 0.121 0.316 (0.123)
 Ashanti 0.098 0.446* 0.733***
 Brong Ahafo 0.053 0.599** (0.137)
 Northern − 0.219 − 0.678** 0.420***
 Upper East 0.629*** 0.588** (0.140)
Production determinants    
Farm size in hectares − 0.003* 0.122*** 0.092***
Price/kg 0.005** 0.048*** 0.017***
Extension office in community   0.084** 0.066
Agricultural wage − 0.009** − 0.006 0.011**
Ecological zone (base: Coastal)    
 Forest − 0.140 0.233 0.120
 Savannah − 0.441*** 0.534** 0.523***
Adult equivalent scale 0.113*** − 0.037* − 0.069***
Other sales determinants    
Market in community − 0.039 0.118** 0.146***
Navigable road to community 1.171*** 2.798*** 0.826***
Public transport availability 0.464*** 0.070** 0.070*
Ownership of radio 0.031 0.150* 0.159***
Bank in community 0.367*** 0.112 0.031*
Ease of finding jobs in community 0.124***   
People temporarily leave community 0.140***   
Constant − 0.344** − 1.990*** − 1.321***
Observations   4915  
Wald chi2   991.73***  
Log Pseudo likelihood   − 5013.08  
Rho   − 0.999*** − 0.811***
Wald test   26.23***  
  1. Source: GLSS6 Data; *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01