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Table 4 Estimates of the effect of nonfarm engagement on market participation

From: Nonfarm activity and market participation by farmers in Ghana

Effecta All crops Individual cropsb
Maize Groundnut Rice Beans Sorghum
ATT 0.505 0.377 0.107 0.231 0.280 0.088
  (0.325) (0.441) (0.887) (0.201) (0.169) (0.158)
ATU 0.209 0.303 0.307 0.648 0.572 0.108
  (0.239) (0.369) (0.407) (0.158) (0.139) (0.175)
ATE 0.307 0.330 0.229 0.460 0.465 0.099
  (0.225) (0.346) (0.581) (0.150) (0.105) (0.167)
  1. Figures in parentheses are standard deviations
  2. aBecause we are using cross-sectional data and a quasi-experimental approach to estimating treatment effects, we display the estimates of ATT and ATE together
  3. bIn the individual crop estimations, convergence problems were encountered, and some variables had to be dropped before achieving convergence. Therefore, the results cannot be compared to the results from the ‘all crop’ estimations. They are only to show how robust the effect of NFE is