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Table 5 Switch_probit estimates of determinants of nonfarm engagement and market participation for individual crops

From: Nonfarm activity and market participation by farmers in Ghana

Variable Sale of maize Sale of g’nut Sale of rice
NFE Part Non-part NFE Part Non-part NFE Part Non-part
Age of household head − 0.004*** − 0.003 − 0.005*** − 0.003 0.000 − 0.002 − 0.007** 0.002 − 0.007*
Average age of household 0.006*** 0.007 − 0.001 0.005 − 0.003 − 0.003 0.006 − 0.009* − 0.009
Sex of household head − 0.012 − 0.131 0.232*** − 0.111 0.283** 0.214 − 0.158 0.114 0.117
Years of education of head 0.037*** 0.013 − 0.023*** 0.018** − 0.011 − 0.022 0.018* − 0.015 0.004
Area of residence − 0.246* 0.044 0.205 0.026 0.403 0.204 0.005 0.447 0.677**
Farm size in hectares − 0.010 0.071 0.197*** − 0.002 0.251*** 0.007 0.218*** 0.212*** 0.145
Price/kg − 0.009 0.004 − 0.028 − 0.013 0.029 0.036 − 0.003 − 0.060** − 0.146***
Extension office in community   − 0.706* − 0.084   0.003 0.179   0.459*** − 0.101
Agricultural wage − 0.007 − 0.021 0.013** − 0.022** 0.002 0.035* − 0.023 0.136*** 0.118***
Ecological zone (base: Coastal):          
 Forest − 0.203* 5.868*** 0.092 − 0.752* 0.618* − 0.092 − 0.777 − 4.228*** 5.962***
 Savannah − 0.546*** 5.850*** 0.290** − 0.275 0.249 0.006 − 0.985 − 3.795*** 6.213***
Adult equivalent scale 0.119*** 0.052* − 0.061*** 0.118*** − 0.060** − 0.020 0.129*** − 0.124*** 0.032
Market in community 0.065 − 0.576*** − 0.082 0.033 2.182*** − 7.420*** − 0.055 − 0.225** − 0.256*
Navigable road to community − 1.345*** 14.135*** 0.764***     0.096 − 0.120 0.181
Public transport availability 0.543*** − 0.808*** − 0.122** 0.220*** − 0.139 − 0.232** 0.158* 0.021 0.053
Ownership of radio 0.048 0.038 0.164*** − 0.058 0.140 0.177 − 0.109 0.010 − 0.001
Bank in community 0.388*** − 0.091 0.107 0.347* − 0.368* 0.476 0.224 − 0.348 0.436
Ease of jobs in community 0.115**    0.142**    0.267***   
Temporal leaving of community 0.158***    0.004***    0.075**   
Constant − 0.269 − 7.536*** − 1.298*** − 6.845 − 0.393 6.050 0.360 4.241*** − 7.556
Control for regional dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Observations   4437    1730    1157  
Wald chi2   1007.55***    49,787.62***    111.39***  
Log Pseudo lik   − 4225.19    − 1512.63    − 1379.68  
Rho   0.438 − 0.746**   − 0.959*** − 1.00***   − 1.00*** − 0.295
Wald test   17.46***    108.35***    1.21  
Variable Sale of beans Sale of sorghum
NFE Part Non-part NFE Part Non-part
Age of household head − 0.005** − 0.001 − 0.005** − 0.007** 0.001 − 0.010**
Average age of household 0.008 − 0.001 − 0.002 0.005 − 0.014 0.006
Sex of household head − 0.007 − 0.133 0.442*** − 0.052 − 0.333 0.515**
Years of education of head 0.012 − 0.014 − 0.019** − 0.002 0.039* 0.021
Area of residence 0.380 − 0.114 0.646* 0.298 − 0.649 − 0.535
Farm size in hectares − 0.107 0.261 0.109** − 0.018 0.252*** 0.096*
Price/kg 0.046 − 0.058** 0.004 0.007 0.047 0.019
Extension office in community   0.167 − 0.094   0.298 0.293
Agricultural wage − 0.041** 0.079 0.048*** − 0.036** − 0.010 0.002
Ecological zone (base: Coastal):       
 Forest 0.622 − 7.993 − 0.750*    
 Savannah 0.411 − 7.919*** − 0.989**    
Adult equivalent scale 0.099*** − 0.048 − 0.012 0.093*** − 0.032 0.000
Market in community 0.133 − 0.198** − 0.082 0.204** − 0.570*** − 0.050
Navigable road to community 0.240 − 0.343 − 0.044 0.031 − 0.242 − 0.045
Public transport availability − 0.013 0.219 0.043 0.139 0.264 − 0.050
Ownership of radio − 0.072 0.143 0.164* 0.056 − 0.061 0.001
Bank in community 0.364 0.099 − 0.156 0.360 0.498 − 1.059*
Ease of jobs in community 0.209***    0.302***   
Temporal leaving of community 0.068***    0.159**   
Constant − 1.802** 8.787** − 0.759 − 0.999* 1.724 − 0.037
Control for regional dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations   1371    997  
Wald chi2   73.57***    107.60***  
Log Pseudo lik   − 1656.77    − 1099.99  
Rho   − 0.95*** − 1.00***   − 0.190 − 240
Wald test   2.00    0.21  
  1. Source: Produced by the authors using the GLSS6 Data; *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01