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Table 6 Summary statistics of farms who change to specialised suckler cow farm type and those who do not.

From: Structural change in the dairy sector: exit from farming and farm type change

Variable Farm type change = 0 Farm type change = 1 Mean difference
Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. (mean 1 − mean 0)
Number of workers (family): 0 0.001 0.024 0.001 0.026 0.000
 1 0.084 0.278 0.100 0.300 0.016**
 2 0.362 0.481 0.378 0.485 0.016
 3 0.297 0.457 0.295 0.456 − 0.002
 4 0.177 0.382 0.164 0.370 − 0.014
 5 0.045 0.206 0.036 0.187 − 0.008*
 > 5 0.035 0.183 0.027 0.161 − 0.008*
Apprentices (binary) 0.029 0.168 0.015 0.122 − 0.014***
Employees (binary) 0.126 0.332 0.127 0.333 0.001
Age of the farmer (years) 45.038 13.525 43.323 12.685 − 1.714***
Number of dairy cows 16.340 12.210 14.266 9.347 − 2.074***
Stocking rate (LU/UAA) 1.415 0.936 1.216 0.511 − 0.198***
Organic farm (binary) 0.122 0.327 0.194 0.396 0.072***
Animal welfare housing system (BTS, binary) 0.353 0.478 0.463 0.499 0.110***
Regularly keeping animals outdoors (RAUS, binary) 0.755 0.430 0.814 0.389 0.059***
Herfindahl–Hirschman index 0.412 0.115 0.404 0.114 − 0.008***
Direct payments in 1000 CHF 47.770 27.771 46.889 29.320 − 0.881
Ratio of direct payments/SO 0.422 0.226 0.437 0.182 0.016***
Milk price index (2015 = 100) 115.882 10.170 115.603 10.717 − 0.280
Gruyère (PDO region) 0.156 0.362 0.157 0.364 0.002
Raclette du Valais (PDO reg.) 0.042 0.200 0.027 0.163 − 0.014***
Rest of CH 0.803 0.398 0.815 0.388 0.012
Comparison salary in 2nd and 3rd sector in 1000 CHF 63.757 5.553 63.991 5.334 0.234*
Unemployment rate 0.024 0.009 0.024 0.009 0.001***
Valley region 0.217 0.412 0.203 0.403 − 0.013
Hill region 0.353 0.478 0.386 0.487 0.033***
Mountain region 0.431 0.495 0.411 0.492 − 0.020
Agricultural policy periods
 2000–2001 0.123 0.328 0.120 0.326 − 0.002
 2002–2006 0.298 0.457 0.300 0.458 0.002
 2007–2008 0.114 0.318 0.114 0.317 − 0.001
 2009–2013 0.269 0.443 0.199 0.400 − 0.069***
 2014–2018 0.197 0.397 0.267 0.443 0.070***
Number of observations 439,534   1461   
  1. t-statistic of mean difference calculated as \(({\mathrm{Mean}}_{1}-{\mathrm{Mean}}_{0})/\sqrt{\frac{\left({\mathrm{Std}.\mathrm{ dev}.}_{1}^{2}\right)}{{N}_{1}}+\frac{\left({\mathrm{Std}.\mathrm{ dev}.}_{0}^{2}\right)}{{N}_{0}}}\)
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1